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Regions of the brain

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Regions of the brain

cerebral hemispheres (cerebrum) diencephalon brain stem cerebellum

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Four lobes of the brain

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

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frontal lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement

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parietal lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch.

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5

occipital lobe

A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information

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temporal lobe

An area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex near the temples that is the primary receiving area for auditory information

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7

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

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8

peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

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somatic nervous system

the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. sends messages to the central nervous system.

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autonomic nervous system

the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.

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sympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations

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parasympathetic nervous system

the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy

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Midbrain

A small part of the brain above the pons that integrates sensory information and relays it upward.

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brain stem function

controls automatic behaviors necessary for survival

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Pons

A brain structure that relays information from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain

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Medulla

the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing

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Cerebellum

A large structure of the hindbrain that controls fine motor skills.

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Thalamus

the brain's sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

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Hypothalamus

A neural structure lying below the thalamus; it directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.

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limbic system

neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives

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Amygdala

A limbic system structure involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression.

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Hippocampus

A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.

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split-brain surgery

procedure that involves severing the corpus callosum to reduce the spread of epileptic seizures

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Neuroplasticity

the ability within the brain to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or trauma

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Agonists

chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell

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glands of the endocrine system

pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal

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Neurotransmitters

chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons

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SSRI function

class of drugs used to relieve anxiety by limiting reuptake of a neurotransmitter

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Reuptake

a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron

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EEG scan

Brain scan that records electrical activity in the brain.

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MRI

a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain

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fMRI

a form of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain that registers blood flow to functioning areas of the brain

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components of a neuron

cell body, dendrite, axon, myelin sheath, glial cells, synapse

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twin studies

a common method of investigating whether nature or nurture affects behavior

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right hemisphere

This half of the brain specializes in perception of physical environment, art, nonverbal communication, music & spiritual aspects. It receives information from and controls the opposite side of the body.

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left hemisphere

controls the right side of the body; analytical, language, math

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absolute refractory period

The minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin.

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action potential

a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

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Genotype

genetic makeup of an organism

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Phenotype

An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.

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synaptic pruning

a process whereby the synaptic connections in the brain that are used are preserved, and those that are not used are lost

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dendritic pruning

refers to the process by which extra neurons and synaptic connections are eliminated in order to increase the efficiency of neuronal transmissions.

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43

broca's area

the motor speech center in the left hemisphere of the brain in most people. Language production

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wernicke's area

the auditory word center; located in the posterior part of the superior temporal convolution in most people. Language comprehension

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dendrite

short fiber that conducts toward the cell body of the neuron. this part of the neuron recieves messages from other neurons

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prefrontal cortex

responsible for decision making, executive planning, and functioning

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afferent nerves

nerves that carry signals toward the central nervous system from the periphery.

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efferent nerves

carries nerve impulses away from the central nervous system toward the periphery.

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dopamine

a monoamine neurotransmitter found in the brain and essential for the normal functioning of the central nervous system. lack of dopamine produces parkinson's

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50

gonads

make sure humans can have children

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51

acetylcholine

a neurotransmitter that is a derivative of choline; released at the ends of nerve fibers in the somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems

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52

thyroid gland

located near the base of the neck. controls body's metabolism

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lutemite

gets the body excited. too much of it can give migraines

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serotonin

controls mood and is responsible for happiness

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endorphins

body releases this hormone when it feels pain or stress

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excitatory

neurotransmitters that make the next cell more likely to fire are called

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inhibitory

neurotransmitters that make the next cell less likely to fire are called

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