A&P Lab - Class 3: The Behaviour of Living Cells

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All molecules that enter or leave the cell must either:

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All molecules that enter or leave the cell must either:

  • Pass directly through the cell membrane

  • Pass through channels that exist in the cell membrane

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What is the permeability of the cell membrane?

Selectively permeable/semipermeable

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What is diffusion?

The movement of molecules from a high concentration level to a low concentration level until equilibrium is attained.

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What did the orcein crystal experiment demonstrate?

Diffusion (throughout the lab period, we observed the crystals diffusing at room temperature - in water)

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How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?

(Water example): Cold water: Molecules are moving slower, resulting in much slower diffusion. Hot water: Molecules are moving quicker, resulting in much quicker diffusion.

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What is osmosis?

Similar to diffusion. The dispersion of particles from high concentration to low concentration until equilibrium is achieved. But, it is through water, and there is a semi-permeable membrane.

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What is starch?

A polysaccharide (large organic molecule) composed of many glucose units (monosaccharides).

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What happens when starch reacts with iodine?

A dark blue colour is produced.

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What is iodine?

A small inorganic molecule.

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What did the dialysis bag represent in the dialysis tubing exercise?

The selectively permeable membrane of a cell.

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Isotonic solution

"The same"

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Hypertonic solution

"Too much"

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Hypotonic solution

"Too little"

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Which de-calcified egg (previously sitting in 5% acetic acid) gains weight after sitting in the following solutions:

De-calcified egg soaked in 42% sucrose solution.

De-calcified egg soaked in distilled water.

  • Which solution is hypertonic to egg contents?

  • Which solution is hypotonic to egg contents?

42% sucrose solution: Loses weight

Distilled water: Gains weight

  • 42% sucrose solution is hypertonic to egg contents

  • Water is hypotonic to egg contents

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What word is used when a red blood cell is placed in a hypotonic solution (such as distilled water)?

Blood cells will burst, called hemolysis (this name only applies to red blood cells).

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What word is used when a red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution (such as concentrated salt water)?

Red blood cells will shrivel, called crenation (this name only applies to red blood cells).

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What is the salt solution (%) of a red blood cell and its environment?

0.9% salt solution

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What happens to a red blood cell if we add it to a 10% salt solution?

It will shrivel up (crenate).

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What happens to a red blood cell if we add distilled water to it?

It will absorb lots of water and burst (haemolyze).

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When you're cooking beets, why does the red dye exit the beet?

Heat while cooking denatures the cell membrane of a beet, and pigment is released into the water.

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Heat denatures _________________ of the cell.

Acetone denatures _________________ of the cell.

How do these affect cell wall permeability?

Heat denatures the cell wall.

Acetone denatures lipids.

This means that the cell membrane is no longer selectively permeable.

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In a solution that biuret is added to, the biuret suddenly turns purple. What substance is in the solution that caused the biuret to turn purple?

Protein.

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