Understanding Culture, Society, & Politics - SA#2

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Cultural Heritage

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41 Terms

1

Cultural Heritage

It is an expression of lifestyles developed by a community and is generationally transmitted

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2

Tangible Cultural Heritage

A type of cultural heritage that can be touched or seen

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3

Intangible Cultural Heritage

Its examples include traditions such as singing, festivals, and weaving

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4

The Four Orientations in Viewing Cultures

  1. Ethnocentrism

  2. Xenocentrism

  3. Cultural Relativism

  4. Multiculturalism

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5

Ethnocentrism

  • Coined by William G. Sumner

  • Believing your culture is superior to another

  • Evaluation of other cultures based on one’s cultural norms

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6

Xenocentrism

  • Believing your culture is inferior to another

  • The desire to engage with another culture other than your own

  • Sparks cultural diffusion

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7

Cultural Relativism

The practice of assessing a culture by its own standards rather than inferring from one’s own cultural standards

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8

Multiculturalism

The practice of recognizing and including all cultures to uphold cultural diversity and equity (same progression, equity for all)

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9

Sociocultural Evolution

  • Proposed by Gerhard Lenski

  • Lenski’s approach views technological progress as the most fundamental factor in evolution

  • Technology is the driving force for societal change

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10

Gerhard Lenski

The sociologist who viewed technological progress as the driving force for societal evolution

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11

The Five Stages of Sociocultural Evolution

  1. Hunter-Gatherer Societies

  2. Pastoral Societies

  3. Horticultural Societies

  4. Agricultural Societies

  5. Industrial Societies

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12

Hunter-Gatherer Society

  • A society that is composed of small, nomadic groups

  • Little to no socioeconomic inequality among members

  • Utilized basic hunting tools

  • Subsistence Economy - an economy directed toward basic needs

  • No material surplus (no excess goods produced)

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13

Pastoral Society

  • Domesticating animals as a resource for survival

  • Retains the nomadic lifestyle to locate places where domesticated animals can thrive

  • Utilized simple tools

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14

Horticultural Society

  • The first human settlements were built

  • These human settlements were semi-permanent (Kaingin System)

  • Formed in areas where rainfall or other conditions were present to sustain crop growth

  • Utilized simple farming tools

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15

Kaingin System

  1. Move to a mountain and perform deforestation to create a small plot of farmland.

  2. Once all resources are harvested, relocate.

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16

Agricultural Society

  • Utilized more sophisticated tools built from metal

  • Fully permanent settlements were built to accommodate for the bigger population size

  • Introduced specialization to support the needs of society in turn for profit

  • Introduced social institutions (e.g. school, church, government)

  • Introduced material surplus

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17

Material Surplus

This is referred to as the unnecessary overproduction of resources

This is also the basis for social inequality

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18

Specialization

The process of taking on a job in society (e.g. farmer, baker, tailor)

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19

Industrial Society

  • Marked the shift from human and animal power to machine power

  • As the production of goods became more efficient due to machines, material surplus increased. Increased production = increased material surplus

  • Utilized automation and steam power to efficiently perform human tasks

  • Adam Smith proposed that businesses must be independent from the government, introducing the idea of Capitalism

  • Karl Marx proposed the idea of Communism, in which all properties are publicly owned, in opposition to Capitalism

  • Knowledge = Power

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20

Socialization

A lifelong process of social interaction by which we learn the rules and patterns of behavior affected by culture

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21

Enculturation

  • A process by which we learn our culture through the transmission between generations

  • Acquisition of one’s own culture

  • Essential for survival

  • The first level of socialization

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22

Acculturation

  • The process of acquiring a culture other than your own

  • Amalgamation of two cultures

  • Not essential for survival

  • The second level of socialization

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23

Cultural Diffusion

  • The spread of cultural norms, beliefs, and traditions from one group to another

  • The mixing of cultures from different cultural groups

  • Face-to-face interaction may not occur as the influence may be transmitted through media (e.g. K-pop, Hip Hop)

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24

Primary Socialization

  • The socialization that occurs inside the home

  • Refers to a person’s first experiences with language, values, beliefs, and norms

  • Includes Gender Socialization, Race Socialization, & Class Socialization

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25

Gender Socialization

  • A type of primary socialization

  • The process of learning the behaviors, values, and norms associated with a person’s sex

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26

Race Socialization

  • A type of primary socialization

  • The process of learning the behaviors, values, and norms associated with racial groups

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27

Class Socialization

  • A type of primary socialization

  • The process of learning the behaviors, values, and norms associated with socioeconomic status

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28

Anticipatory Socialization

The process by which people learn to take on the values and standards of groups they plan to join

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29

Resocialization

  • A process of socialization that transforms one’s behaviors, values, beliefs, and norms

  • Carefully controlled

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30

Reverse Socialization

A process of socialization in which elder generations learn from younger generations

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31

Secondary Socialization

  • The socialization that occurs outside the home

  • This often starts with school

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32

Total Institutions

  • Setting in which people are isolated from the outside world and subject to the control of officials of varied marks

  • e.g. military camps, boarding school

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33

Cultural Capital

The accumulation of knowledge, behaviors, and skills that one can possess to demonstrate one’s own cultural competence

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34

Pierre Bourdieu

🇫🇷 French sociologist who introduced “Cultural Capital”

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35

The Five Agents of Socialization

  1. Family

  2. Religion

  3. School

  4. Peers

  5. Mass Media / Social Media

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36

Bias

The human tendency to make errors in judgment or choice-making based on personal ideas or preconceived notions

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37

Stereotypes

  • A popular belief about specific social groups

  • Standardized and simplified conceptions of groups based on assumptions

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38

Prejudice

  • Prejudgment/assumption made about someone before receiving adequate and accurate information

  • Prejudgments may be based on a person’s characteristics

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39

Discrimination

  • The prejudicial treatment of a person or persons based on their background

  • Actual behavior towards members of another group

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40

? + ? = Prejudice

Bias + Stereotypes

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41

? + ? = Discrimination

Prejudice + Societal Support / Lack of Prohibition

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