Pharmacognosy 3 - Carbohydrates

studied byStudied by 4 people
5.0(1)
get a hint
hint

Carbohydrates

1 / 83

encourage image

There's no tags or description

Looks like no one added any tags here yet for you.

84 Terms

1

Carbohydrates

__ can be a polyhydroxyaldehydes or polyhydroxyketones

New cards
2

Glucose

it is an example of a polyhydroxyaldehydes

New cards
3

Fructose

it is an example of a polyhydroxyketones

New cards
4

Dextrose

D-Glucose is also known as _

New cards
5

Levulose

L-Fructose is also known as _

New cards
6

Dioses

Hydroxyacetaldehyde is an example of __

New cards
7

Trioses

Glyceraldehyde and Dihydroxyacetone are an example of

New cards
8

Tetroses

Erythrose and Erythrulose are an example of

New cards
9

Pentoses

Arabinose such as Xylose, Xylulose, Ribose, Ribulose are example of

New cards
10

Hexoses

They are the most important monosaccharides

  • ex. glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose

New cards
11

Heptoses

Heptulose is an example of

New cards
12

Octoses

D-glycero-D-Mannuctulose is an example of

New cards
13

Nonoses

Sialic acid is an example of __

New cards
14
  • Blood Sugar,

  • Grape Sugar,

  • Physiologic Sugar

Glucose other names:

New cards
15

Glucose

MOST ABUNDANT sugar in the Blood

New cards
16
  • Source of Nutrient

  • Sweetening agent

uses of Glucose and Fructose are:

New cards
17

known as Fruit Suga

New cards
18

Levulose

sweetest sugar

New cards
19

Galactose

Reacts with HNO3 to form Mucic Acid Crystals

New cards
20

C4

Galactose is a ___ epimer of D-Glucose

New cards
21

C2

Mannose is a ___ epimer of D-Glucose

New cards
22

Mucic Test

A test to see the presence of Mucic Acid Crystals

New cards
23

Seliwanoff’s Test

A test to differentiate ketose from aldose

New cards
24

HCl & Resorcinol

reagent used in Seliwanoff’s Test

New cards
25

Ketose

In Seliwanoff’s Test:

If the solution turns into cherry red, the monosaccharide is a __

New cards
26

Aldose

In Seliwanoff’s Test:

If the solution turns into pink, the monosaccharide is a __

New cards
27

Plant Acids

  1. Citric Acid

  2. Tartaric Acid

  3. Fumaric acid + Ferrous,

  4. Malic Acid

The products of oxidation when Glucose is oxidized

New cards
28

Scheele

Citric Acid is isolated by

New cards
29

Lemon Juice

Citric Acid is isolated from

New cards
30

Tartaric Acid

A plant acid that is a byproduct of wine industry

New cards
31
  1. Tartaric Acid

  2. Citric Acid

These two plants acids are important as an acidulant in the making of effervescent formulation

New cards
32

Crumble or Dry

When creating an effervescent formulation, tartaric and citric acids are essential. The product will ___ if the formulation contains ONLY tartaric acid.

New cards
33

Sticky

When creating an effervescent formulation, tartaric and citric acids are essential. The product will get___ if the formulation contains ONLY Citric Acid

New cards
34

Lactic Acid

acidulant in infant feeding formula

New cards
35

Ferrous Fumarate

  • Fumaric Acid + Ferrous =

    • Use as a Hematinic

New cards
36

Malic Acid

  • Use as a flavorant

    • Isolated from Cherry Juice

New cards
37

Sorbitol

  • D-Glucitol is also known as

  • Isolated from Berries of Mountain Ash

  • Use as a Humectant in toothpaste and chewing gums

New cards
38

D-Glucitol

The products of reduction when Glucose is reduced

New cards
39

Mannitol

The products of reduction when Mannose is reduced

New cards
40

Mannitol

  • Isolated from Manna Ash

  • Use: Osmotic Diuretic & Osmotic Cathartic

  • Diluent in Chewable Tablets

New cards
41

Citrus limon, RUTACEAE

Scientific Name & Family Name of Lemon Juice

New cards
42

Prunus Cerasus, ROSACEAE

Scientific Name & Family Name of Cherry Juice

New cards
43

Sorbus Aucuparia, ROSACEAE

Scientific Name & Family Name of Mountain Ash

New cards
44

Fraxinus Ornus, Oleaceae

Scientific Name & Family Name of Manna Ash

New cards
45

Bial’s Test

Orcinol + Pentoses = BLUE

What test is this?

New cards
46

Tauber’s Test

Benzidine + Pentose = CHERRY RED

What test is this?

New cards
47

Tollen’s Test

Phoroglucinol + Pentose =  RED

New cards
48

Disaccharides

Formed by dehydration reaction

New cards
49

Sucrose

Alpha 1,2 glycosidic bonds link glucose and fructose to create __

New cards
50

Maltose

Alpha 1,4 glycosidic bonds link glucose and glucose to create __

New cards
51

Lactose

Beta 1,4 glycosidic bonds link glucose and galactose to create __

New cards
52

Table Sugar

Sucrose is also known as _

New cards
53
  • Sugar Cane

  • Sugar Beets

  • Sugar Maple

Sources of Sucrose:

New cards
54
  • Demulcent

  • Preservative

  • Sweetening agent

  • Manufacture of syrups

Uses of Sucrose:

New cards
55

Malt Sugar

Maltose is also known as a

New cards
56

Maltose

  • Partial breakdown of starch

  • germination of Barley

  • ingredient of energy drink

New cards
57

Milk Sugar

Lactose is also known as

New cards
58

Buttermilk

Supernatant Liquid

New cards
59

Skimmed milk

Milk left after the separation of cream

New cards
60

Cream

Fat globules rise on top is known as

New cards
61

Butter

Cream is churned to form

New cards
62

Renin

milk coagulating enzyme from the stomach of mammals

New cards
63

Coagulum

Upper Layer that is use to make Cheese

New cards
64

Whey

Lower Layer: _____________--> part of milk where Lactose is isolated.

New cards
65

Lactulose

  • a semi-synthetic disaccharide (Fructose & Galactose)

  • Produced by the alkaline rearrangement of Lactose

New cards
66
  • Tablet Diluent (Chewable Tablet)

  • Ing. of Infant’s Milk

Use of Lactose:

New cards
67

  • LICAC

  • DUPHOLAC

  • MOVELAX

common Brand Names of Lactulose

New cards
68
  • Cathartic

  • Prevent PSE (Portal Systemic Encephalopathy

Uses of Lactulose

New cards
69

Cellobiose

Beta 1,4 glycosidic bonds link glucose and glucose to create __

New cards
70

Trehalose

Alpha 1,1 glycosidic bonds link glucose and galactose to create __

New cards
71

Cupric Sulfate

Reagent used in Fehling’s Test & Benedict’s Test

New cards
72

Rochelle Salt (NaK Tartrate)

Sequesterant used in Fehling’s Test

New cards
73

Brick Red

Positive result of Fehling’s Test

New cards
74

Na Carbonate

Sequesterant used in Benedict’s Test

New cards
75

Silver Nitrate

Reagent used in Tollen’s Silver Mirror Test

New cards
76

Colorless → Silver Mirror

Positive result of Tollen’s Silver Mirror Test

New cards
77

Cupric Sulfate

Reagent used in Barfoed’s Test

New cards
78

Barfoed’s Test

use to differentiate monosaccharides and disaccharides

New cards
79

Reducing Disaccharides

the ____ require a longer reaction time of roughly more than 10 minutes to see the precipitate

New cards
80

Reducing Monosaccharides

the ____ require a reaction time of roughly 2-3 minutes to see the precipitate

New cards
81

Saccharum officinarum, POACEAE

Scientific Name & Family Name of Sugar Cane

New cards
82

Beta vulgaris, Amaranthaceae

Scientific Name & Family Name of Sugar Beets

New cards
83

Acer Saccharum, Aceraceae

Scientific Name & Family Name of Sugar Maple

New cards
84

Hordeum vulgare, POACEAE

Scientific Name & Family Name of Barley

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 68 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1631 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(7)
note Note
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 36618 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(87)
note Note
studied byStudied by 63 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 181293 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(731)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard31 terms
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard94 terms
studied byStudied by 18 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard24 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard204 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard67 terms
studied byStudied by 87 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard22 terms
studied byStudied by 1901 people
Updated ... ago
4.3 Stars(30)