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digestion of lipids

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digestion of lipids

lipases convert lipids into glycerol and fatty acids

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digestion of proteins

proteases convert proteins into amino acids

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Phenotype

The physical characteristics of an organism with respect to one or more particular gene

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To test for starch

Reddish brown iodine turns blue black

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Vitamin C

Stick together cells lining surfaces in the body

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The body transport system consist of

the heart, blood vessels and blood

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Vaccination

Immune system is stimulated and memory cells are mades so that future exposure to a pathogen results in rapid production of large amount of the right antibody to prevent disease

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What artery takes blood from the heart to the lungs

Pulmonary arteries

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What does insulin convert

Glucose into glycogen

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ADH

antidiuretic hormones control the water content of the blood by its effect on the kidney

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low body temperature

vasocontriction occurs, body hairs raise to trap layer of air for insulation, Metabolic rate increases, shiver to produce heat

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Differentiate

The process by which unspecialised cells become specialised for a particular function

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Eutrophication

When a lake or a river becomes enriched with nutrients, e.g from fertiliser applied to fields, excess plant growth is followed by decay. Microorganisms use up oxygen from the water so that other organisms can no longer survive

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Sexual reproduction

Reproduction which involves the joining of two special haploid sex cells or gametes to produce diploid offspring which are genetically different from their parents

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how are dirt and pathogens filtered in when you breath

by cilia and mucus

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peristalsis

constriction and relaxation of the muscles pushing food through the gut.

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What to the valves do

Control the flow of blood in the heart

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Renal artery

heart to kidney

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Features of arteries

have thick, muscular and elastic walls to pump and accomodate blood under a high pressure.

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Features of veins

Have thin walls and a wide lumen to carry blood to the lungs under a low pressure.

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What is Synapse

The gap where neurones meet and electrical impulses can't cross so chemical neurotransmitters are released and diffuse across the gap

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iris

the part of the eyes which controls the amount of light let in

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Active transport

The movement of substances against a concentration gradient and/or across a cell membrane using energy

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Aerobic Respiration

The process by which food molecules are broken down using oxygen to release energy for the cells

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Allele

A version of a particular gene

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Anaerobic respiration

Cellular respiration in the absence of oxygen

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Asexual reproduction

Reproduction which involves only one parent and produces offspring which are identical to their parents

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Auxins

Plant hormones which are involved in controlling the phototropisms

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Carbohydrates

Food group which includes the sugar and starches. They are important for providing energy for the cells

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Cell

Basic unit of all living organisms

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Cellular respiration

Respiration which takes place in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of the cells

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Cellulose cell wall

The rigid cell wall which surrounds plant cell

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Chlorophyll

The green pigment contained in the chloroplast which captures light energy from the sun

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Chloroplast

The plant organelles which contain chlorophyll. They are the site of photosynthesis

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Clone

Offspring produces by asexual reproduction which are identical to their parent organism

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Codominance

Two alleles which are both expressed in the phenotype of an offspring

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Consumers

Organisms which feed on other organisms, eg. Primary eats plants, secondary consumers eat herbivores

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Cytoplasm

The water-based gel in which the organelles of all living cells are suspended

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Decomposers

Microorganisms that break down water products and dead bodies

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Denatures

The changed shape of the active site of an enzyme caused by extreme temperatures and pH

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Diastole

The stage of the cardiac cycle when the heart fills with blood-relaxation period of a heart beat

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Diffusion

The net movement of the particles of a gas or a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, down a concentration gradient

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Diploid

Having 2 sets of chromosomes in the nucleus of the cells: one from the male parent and one from the female

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Disperse

The spreading of seeds away from the parent plant

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Dominant

A characteristic which will show up in the offspring even if only one of the alleles is inherited

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Double circulation

The separate circulation of blood from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart again and from the heart to the body and back to the heart again

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Ecosystem

All of the animals and plants living in an area, along with the things what affect them, such as soil and the weather. An ecosystem includes all the interactions between the many different types of living organisms and the non-living components

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Egestion

The removal of undigested food from a cell or from the body in the form of faeces

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Endocrine glands

The glands which produce hormones and secrete them directly into the blood

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Enzyme

A protein molecule which acts as a biological catalyst, speeding up the rate of a specific reaction without being used up or affected

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Fermentation

Another term for anaerobic respiration which is particularly used for microorganisms such as yeast. Glucose is partly broken down into ethanol or lactic acid with the release of a small amount of energy

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Fertilisation

The joining of of the haploid male and female gametes to form a new diploid individual

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Gametes

The haploid sex cell which contain only one set of chromosomes. Male gametes include sperm and pollen, female gametes include ova and ovules

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Genetically modified organism

Organisms which have had DNA from a different species inserted in their genome

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Genotype

The genetic makeup of an organism concerning the alleles of a particular gene. e.g TT, Tt, tt

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Global warming

An increase in the temperature at the surface of the earth due to green house gases in the atmosphere trapping infrared radiation from the surface

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Glycogen

The carbohydrate energy store found in the liver and muscles of animals. It can be converted back into glucose when energy is needed in cells

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Green house gases

Gases such as carbon dioxide and methane in the atmosphere which absorb infrared radiation from the surface of the Earth and radiate from the surface of the Earth and radiate it back to the surface, contributing to the greenhouse effect

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Habitat

The place where an animal or plant lives including both the living and the non-living aspects of the area

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Haploid

Having only one set of chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell

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Heterozygous

When the two alleles for a particular gene on a pair of chromosomes are different e.e Tt

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Homozygous

When the two alleles for a particular gene on a pair of chromosomes are the same, e.g TT tt

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Hormones

Chemical messages which are secreted by endocrine glands and carried around the body in the blood to the organs they affect

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Hypothalamus

The part of the brain which regulates many body functions, e.g temperature, thirst, hunger and sleeping. It also controls the production of many hormones from the pituitary glands

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Invertebrates

Animals which do not have a backbone

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Meiosis

A two-stage process of cell division which reduces the number of chromosomes from the diploid parent cell to the haploid daughter cell. It is important in the formation of gametes

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Mitochondria

A cell organelle which is the site of aerobic respiration, so they produce most of the energy needed by the cell

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Mitosis

Asexual cell division, a single-stage process which results in identical daughter cells

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Natural selection

The processby which evolution happens. Organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support. Only those best adapted to their environment- the fittest- will survive to breed and pass on their characteritics

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Neurone

The basic unit of the nervous system, they are cells which carry minute electrical impulses around the body

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Nitrogen cycle

The continuous natural process by which nitrogen is exchanged between living organisms and the environment

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Nucleus

The organelle in the cell which contains the genetic material

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Organ

A group of different tissues working together to carry out a particular function in the body

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Organ system

A group of organs working together to carry out a particular function in the body

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Organelles

Membrane-bound structures found in the cytoplasm of a cell which carry out particular functions in the cells

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Osmoregulation

The control and regulation of the levels of mineral ions and water in the cytoplasm of a cell or in the blood of an organism

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Osmosis

The net movement of water down a concentration gradient from an area of high concentration of water molecules to an area of low concentration of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane

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Photosynthesis

The precess by which plants make food combining carbon dioxide and water to make glucose using light energy captured using chlorophyll

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Phototropism

The response of a plant through growth using light shining from one side only

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Plasmid

The extra circles of DNA containing genes found in bacteria and used by scientists in genetic enegineering

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Population

A group of individuals of the same species living in the same habitat and breeding together

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Positive tropism

A tropism (movement by growth) in which the plant moves towards a stimulus

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Quadrat

Quadrats are usually square frames of metal that are laid on the ground to outline a sample area

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Recessive

A characteristic which shows up on the offspring only when both of the alleles are inherited

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Sex chromosomes

The chromosomes whivh determine the sex of the offspring. In humans XX is female, XY is male

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Systole

The stage of the cardiac cycle when the heart contracts and forces the blood out around the body and to the lungs

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Transgenic

An organism which contains DNA from another organism

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Transpiration

The loss of water vapour from the surface of the leaves of plants. Thnis occurs through the stomata when they are opened to allow gaseous exchange needed for photosynthesis to take place

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Turgor

The state of a plant cell when water has moved in by osmosis so that the cytoplasm is pressing hard against the cellulose cell wall and no more wate can enter the cell

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Umbilical cord

The structure that connects a fetus to the placenta. Food and oxygen travel from the mother to the developing fetus through the umbilical cord, waste products such as CO2 and urea pass in the other direction

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Vaccination

Giving a dose of a weakened or dead pathogen (a vaccine) to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and develop immunity to a disease

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Xylem

The transport tissue in plants which carries water and mineral ions up from the root through the stems to the leaves

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Zygote

The new diploid individual formed when the haploid male and female gametes meet and fuse in sexual reproduction

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Characteristics of living organisms

MRS.GRENC

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Animal Cell structures

Cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and mitochondria

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Plant cell structure

Cell walls, permanent vacuole, chloroplast, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and mitochondria

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What are enzymes affected by

temperature and pH

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How does substances move in and out of cells

Diffusion, osmosis, active transport

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A catalyst

speeds up reactions without being used or changing the reaction

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What are enzymes made of

Proteins

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