Unit One AP World History

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Caesaropapism + where was it

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Europe- West and East Dar al-Islam Song Dynasty Americas

47 Terms

1

Caesaropapism + where was it

Religious and political leader are the same person

Emperor is pope in Byzantine Empire/Eastern

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2

Eastern Europe was (de)centralized, Western was (de)centralized

Eastern=C

Western=D

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3

Capital of Byzantine Empire

Constantinople

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4

Hadith

Collections of the Prophet speaking, second only to Quran

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5

Schism in Islam

Abu Baker appointed, Sunnis agree (85-90% world population Muslims now), Shi’a think it should be Ali, his nephew

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6

Golden age of Islam

Abbasid Caliphate, collapses around 1250

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7

Role of trade in Dar al-Islam

Merchants are important because Muhammed was merchant

-Middleman between China (thriving) and Europe (dumpster fire)

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8

Islamic knowledge came from…

House of Wisdom is a scientific academy and intellectual center to produce scientific and philosophical work.

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9

Art in Dar al-Islam

Drew on mosque ceilings, very elaborate, putting Allah and the universe on the ceiling since they couldn’t be put into words

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10

Legal Systems in Islam

Shariah Law

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11

Women in Dar al-Islam

Had more rights then women pretty much everywhere else in this time period. However, they still had limited rights (they could read and study, but not around unrelated males) (they could testify in court without retaliation, but testimony is worth ½ of a mans).

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12

India and Islam

Dar al-Islam went to India, ‘expansion by conquest’, many people didn’t convert because of major differences in Hinduism and Islam. Sufi Muslims- Indian Muslims who accommodated for Hindu gods/practices.

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13

Spain and Dar al-Islam

Dar al-Islam conquered part of Spain

-Most Christians converted, treated well but still seen as second class citizens

-Muslims with more rigid beliefs cam and persecuted Christians

-Eventually Isabella and her husband reclaimed Spain as Christian, persecuted and exiled Muslims and Jewish people.

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14

Which was Byzantine e or w

Eastern Europe=Byzantine Empire

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15

Religion of E. Europe

EASTERN Orthodox Church

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16

Religion of W. Europe

Roman Catholicism

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17

Before E and W Europe, what empire was Europe?

Roman Empire, E Europe kept traditions and political structure of R Empire

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18

Was Europe flourishing in this time??

No, they were doing really bad, and lost Crusades 2-4

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19

W Europe political structure (including name -ism)

No single emperor, just multiple kingdoms which operated under feudalism

Feudalism is kings giving nobles land and getting money and knights. Nobles give knights/vassals land (fief) and get protection and military service. Nobles give peasants land for work and protection (knights are protecting them) and in exchange the peasants work.

Feudalism is the social and political system of W Europe

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20

Primogeniture- definition and E or W

In the feudal system, you can’t go upwards, its status you were born at. Also lands/titles are passed down to eldest sons bc of this.

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21

Economic system of W Europe

Manorialism- Large fiefs(estates of land in feudalism)/estates are manors.

On manors the goal was to be self sufficient and have everything you could need on your manor. Mainly because of the unstable political climate, everyone is fighting so you don’t want to rely on everyone else.

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22

Serfs vs slaves

Not slaves, they aren’t owned but are tied to the land and have to pay tribute.

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23

Kievan Rus

Region that’s modern day Russia. Took culture from Eastern Europe, as EE declined, so did KR. In the 1200s was overtaken by Mongols and developed separately from the rest of Europe.

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24

Agriculture in Europe, what innovations happened?

It improved.

-3 field system (rotation of fields to keep different nutrients in the soil)

-windmills/plow help agriculture which makes population grow

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25

Women in Europe

As population & trade increase, so do opportunities for women because of job specialization. However, men thought education isn’t necessary for women.

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Political change in Europe

  • how that affects political leader + church leader relationship

Monarchs are growing and power, so they are fighting to have more land (LAND=POWER)

The growing monarch power created tension between church and monarch because new power threatens church.

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27

Crusades

  • Goal

  • Who won?

  • Benefits

  • Negative consequences

  • Reclaim Holy Land (Jerusalem) and unite Europe to be one big European Empire

  • Europe won 1, Dar al-Islam won 2-4 and conquered capital of B/E Empire (Constantinople)

  • Promoted cultural exchange between Empires

  • Culture clashes and tensions between Christians and Muslims, many innocent people died, including innocent and oftentimes uninvolved Jewish people.

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28

Capital of Song Dynasty

Hangzhou

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29

Confucianism in Song Dynasty

  • values that influenced life

  • women

  • government (how was this more equal then before)

  • Unequal relationships, filial piety, education is very important

  • Subordinate, husband over wife, foot binding. However, property rights expanded

  • Civil Service Exam inspired by Confucianism values to be in the government (some lower class people could be sponsored)

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Religion (other than Confucianism) in Song Dynasty

Mandate of Heaven said the gods gave them the right to rule and when they messed up a disaster would come to end the dynasty

And Chinese Buddhism

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31

Achievements in innovation in Song Dynasty

Champa rice= more population, more workers

Grand Canal + expansion of other waterways makes easier, cheap trade, peasants can grow specialized crops

Luxury goods are produced

Ships are improved

Printing (kind of invented)

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32

Was this the golden age of

  • China

  • Middle East

  • Europe

  • yes (Song Dynasty)

  • yes, kind of (Abbasid Empire, collapsed 1250s)

  • No

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33

China and Korea

  • how Korea was influenced/women

  • how it stayed independent

They had to pay tribute which China let them have a peaceful relationship in exchange for, women couldn’t remarry or inherit property because of the influence of Confucianism from China. Restrictions on elite women became worse than those in China.

Korea still had their own writing system and low class people weren’t really influenced by China

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34

Political Structure of Song Dynasty

One Emperor, 6 major ministries were overseen by censorate, which watched character and behaviour of bureaucratic officials. This is the bureaucracy of Song Dynasty.

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35

Was the Song Dynasty (de)centralized

centralized

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36

China was broken down into…

provinces

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37

Vietnam and China

  • Vietnam adopted

  • Did not adopt

  • women

  • The Vietnamese elites adopted Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, the civil examination, art, literature, and the Mandate of Heaven.

  • Politically, Vietnam was independent and used the same popular culture they had before the tribute system. They kept their language, and had a hybrid langue (like Korea) with China.

  • Most importantly, women had more rights than Chinese women and rejected the Confucianism gender roles. Women could choose their husbands, and their husbands would move in with their wives family.

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38

Japan and China

  • Why Is Japan different from V and K?

  • Adopted

  • Didn’t adopt

  • Women

More voluntary tribute because unlike K and V, they are physically separated from China so they can’t be invaded.

  • Political bureaucratic based of China, Chinese Buddhism, Art, archecteture, education, writing, and more. By the 900s, people stopped borrowing from China and started merging what they had with local traditions.

  • Had samurai warriors who emphasized bravery, endurance, and martial arts instead of intellectual focus in China. Buddhism didn't replace native beliefs, but merged with some. Also had Japanese-Chinese merged language.

  • Women eventually did start to lose power, but because of warrior values, not Confucianism. When Japan took traits from China, women continued to be respected.

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39

Three countries

1= best for women/China had smallest influence

3=worst for women

  1. Probably Japan

  2. Vietnam is close to Japan

  3. Korea, worse than China

1 and 2 could be wrong?

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40

Economic systems with conquered peoples- Incas vs Aztecs

Incas used mita, a labor system where people worked on farms or as house servants. Especially state farms or other state sponsored things. Remember book you read about girl in Ecuador.

Aztecs killed people they captured in battle in human sacrifices, but conquered people had to give tribute.

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41

Where are the Aztec and Inca civilizations, what empires were they in?

Aztec- MexicA people are Aztec Empire. MexicAAztec Because its the Mexica people, its in Central America/Mexico aka Mesoamerica

Inca- in Andes civilizations, in South America

Idk if it’s actually in Peru, but think Inca, Peru to the tune of Lima, Peru from that song.

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42

What was the Maya Civilization?

Ended before Aztec Empire started in Mesoamerica

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43

Political system of Aztec Empire

  • Also, what is the capital?

The Aztec Empire stayed mostly out of the business of its conquered peoples. It was fragmented with many city-states. There were frequent rebellions, and conquered people had to make products that they drove to the capital, Tenochtitlan.

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44

“Logic” of Aztec human sacrifice

Enslaved prisoners who were killed were killed because their blood would replenish the sun deity so it stayed alive. The duty of the Aztec state was to get this blood.

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45

Political system Inca Empire

Emperor- divine son of gods

Eighty provinces in empire have a governor

Inspectors from the imperial center to watch local officials.

Local officials

remember because Inca Empire has 2 words, Inca has 4, 4×2=8 so 80 provinces

use the eight to remember ‘official’ has 8 letters, so the incas and NOT AZTECS had these local official\

Inca= I’m (In in Inca) 88 (eighty governors, 8 letters in official)

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46

Inca Innovations

Quipus- knotted rope to signify births, deaths, marriages, etc

Also had specialized fields like masonry, ceramics, stonework

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Aztec Innovations

built palaces and temples

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