Microbiology exam 3

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Control of microbial growth

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54 Terms

1

Control of microbial growth

  1. physical agents

  2. chemical agents

  3. mechanical means

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2

Types of physical agents in control of microbial growth

  1. heat (dry and moist)

  2. radiation

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3

Types of dry heat

  1. dry oven

  2. incineration

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4

Types of moist heat

  1. Non-pressurized

  2. Pressurized

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5

Examples of non-pressurized moist heat

  1. hot water

  2. boiling water

  3. pasteurization

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6

What are the 2 methods of pasteurization?

  1. Batch method (LTHT)

  2. Flash method (HTLT)

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7

Flash method pasteurization

- 75 degrees Celsius for 15 seconds

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8

Batch method pasteurization

65 degrees Celsius for 30 mins

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9

Pasteurization MUST

  1. maintain taste

  2. maintain nutritional value

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10

Example of pressurized moist heat

Autoclave

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11

Units of autoclave

- Psi 15

- Temp of 121 degrees Celsius

- Time 10-40 mins

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12

Types of radiation

  1. ionizing

  2. non-ionizing

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13

Examples of ionizing radiation

  1. X-ray

  2. Cathode ray

  3. Gamma-ray

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14

Example of Non-ionizing radiation

UV Ray (thymine dimers)

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15

What part of the body is microbe free?

All bodily fluids, tissues, and organs

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16

Example of mechanical means to control microbial growth

filtration

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17

HEPA filter stands for

High Efficiency Particulate Air

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18

Nosocomial infections

Healthcare-associated infections, infection(s) acquired during the process of receiving health care that was not present during the time of admission.

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19

What do you understand by drug susceptibility testing?

Testing is essential in those groups of bacteria commonly showing resistance

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20

How are antibiotics produced?

Antibiotics are produced industrially by a process of fermentation

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21

When do we use filtration to control microbes?

Filtration is used to sterilize heat-sensitive materials, such as culture media, enzymes, vaccines, and antibiotic solutions.

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22

Which portal of entry is most used?

Typically a cutaneous or membranous route

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23

What is oligodynamic action?

Small amount of heavy metal dust is used to destroy a wide range of microbes

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24

Drugs are…

ideal, NOT perfect

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25

what are Beta-lactam composed of?

  1. Beta (B) lactam ring

  2. Thiazolidine ring

  3. Variable “R”

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26

What is chemotherapy?

The use of chemical substances or drugs to treat or prevent disease

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27

What is pasteurization?

Heat treatments of perishable fluids such as milk, fruit juices, or wine to destroy heat-sensitive vegetative cells, followed by rapid chilling to inhibit growth of survivors or germination of spores. It prevents infections and spoilage.

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28

What are macrolides?

Any of a class of antibiotics containing a lactone ring, of which the first and best known is erythromycin.

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29

What are aminoglycosides?

Inhibits protein synthesis

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30

What are polymyxins?

A mixture of antibiotic polypeptides from Bacillus polymyxa that are particularly effective against gram-negative bacteria

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31

What is superinfection?

An infection occurring during antimicrobic therapy that is caused by an overgrowth of drug-resistant microorganisms

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32

What is therapeutic index?

The ratio of the toxic dose to the effective therapeutic dose that is used to assess the safety and reliability of the drug

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33

Broad spectrum drugs

a class of antibiotics that act against an extensive range of disease-causing bacteria by targeting both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial groups

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34

Narrow spectrum drugs

target a few types of bacteria

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35

Properties of drugs

  1. Effectiveness

  2. Safety

  3. Selectivity

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36

Microbicide

Kills microbes

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37

Microbistatic

Inhibits microbe growth

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38

Food irradiation

A food safety process that uses radiation to kill germs that can cause food poisoning (foodborne illness).

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39

Chlorhexidine

A broad-spectrum antimicrobial biguanide used as a topical antiseptic and in dental practice for the treatment of inflammatory dental conditions caused by microorganisms

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40

Stages of clinical infection

  1. The incubation period

  2. The prodromal stage

  3. The period of invasion

  4. The convalescent period

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41

The incubation period

The period of time from the initial contact with an infectious agent to the appearance of the first symptoms

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42

The prodromal stage

The earliest notable symptoms of infection appear as a vague feeling of discomfort, lasts about 1-2 days

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43

Period of invasion

The period during a clinical infection when the infectious agent multiplies at high levels, exhibits its greatest toxicity, and becomes well established in the target tissue

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44

The convalescent period

Patient begins responding to the infection, the symptoms decline and the patient’s strength and health gradually return

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45

Microbiota

The native types of bacteria, fungi, and viruses that normally reside on the body

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46

What is infection?

The entry, establishment, and multiplication of pathogenic organisms within a host

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47

Thermal death time (TDT)

The least time required to kill all cells of a culture at a specified temperature

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48

Sterilization

Any process that COMPLETELY removes or destroys all viable microorganisms

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49

Initial colonization of the newborn

Rupturing of the amniotic sac exposes the baby to microbes carried by the mother.

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50

Paba

is synthesized and utilized as a substrate for the synthesis of folic acid in many bacterial species, yeasts and plants

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51

Salvarsan

a drug that was introduced at the beginning of the 1910s as the first effective treatment for syphilis, relapsing fever, and African trypanosomiasis

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52

Halogens

A group of related chemicals with antimicrobial applications. most often used are chlorine and iodine

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53

Tincture of iodine

Used as an antiseptic that can be applied on cuts, wounds, scratches, etc. It is also used to disinfect water from viruses and bacteria. Wounds can also be cleaned and disinfected by using the tincture of Iodine.

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54

What are the 8 properties of drugs?

  1. inhibit/destroy a wide range of microbes (Broad-spectrum)

  2. prevent the development of antibiotic resistance

  3. prevent the development of superinfection

  4. soluble

  5. not easily excreted

  6. high concentration

  7. available

  8. affordable

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