Biology - Organic Compound Groups

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What are macromolecules

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What are macromolecules

Made from hundreds-thousands of smaller molecules

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What process are macromolecules formed through

Polymerization/Dehydration Synthesis

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Why is carbon such an important element?

It has 4 valence electrons, meaning it can bond 4 times. It is the only organic compound that can do this.

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Carbohydrate Monomer

Monosaccharides (simple)

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Carbohydrate Polymer

Polysaccharides (complex)

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Carbohydrate Functions

  • Source of Energy (starches/glycogen)

  • Structure (celulose)

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Carbohydrate (Foods Its Found In)

Pasta, Bread, Starches, Sweets

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Carbohydrate Structure (Shape)

Ring (Hexagons/Pentagons)

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Carbohydrate Ratio

1:2:1

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Carbohydrate Elements

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

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Types of Monosaccharides

Glucose, Galactose, Fructose

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Types of Polysaccharides

Starches, Glycogen, Cellulose

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Formula for glucose sugar

C6H12O6

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How do we break apart the monomers?

Hydrolysis

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Lipid Monomer

Glycerol, Fatty Acids

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Lipid Polymer

Tri-glyceride

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Lipid Functions

  • Store Energy

  • Water Proof Covering

  • Important for Membranes

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Lipid (Foods Its Found In)

Oils, Butter, Meat

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Lipid Elements

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

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Lipid (Reaction to Water)

Not Soluble

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What does the non solubility of lipids tell you about them?

Its Non-Polar

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What is a saturated lipid?

When all the carbons are bonded once. (Full)

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What is a unsaturated lipid?

When there are multiple bonds between the same molecules (double bonds). (Not Full)

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What tends to be true about unsaturated lipids?

They are less orderly, missing elements, and they are usually liquids.

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Nucleic Acid Monomer

Nucleotide

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Nucleic Acid Polymer

DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid (double helix) RNA - Ribonucleic acid (one strand)

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Nucleic Acid Functions

Store + Transfer Hereditary/Genetic Information

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Nucleic Acid (Foods Its Found In)

Like, everything

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Nucleic Acid Elements

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus

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How many parts are in ONE nucleotide

3

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What are the parts to a nucleotide?

Phospate, 5 Carbon Sugar, Nitrogenous Base

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What is a 5 Carbon Sugar?

Pentose sugar, Either ribose or deoxyribose

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Why are the polymers of nucleic acids so important?

They tell the cell what to do, and are important for reproduction.

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Protein Monomer

Amino Acid

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Protein Polymer

Polypeptide

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Protein Functions

  • Controlling Rate of Chem Reactions(Enzymes) + Regulate Cell Processes

  • Needed for Cell-Structure

  • Cell Transport

  • Helps Fight Disease

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Protein (Foods Its Found In)

Meat, Fish, Eggs, Dairy, Nuts

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Protein Elements

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen

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What two things do every amino acid have?

An Amino Acid Group = NH2 A Carboxyl Group = COOH

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What does the 'R' represent in a diagram?

It is a placeholder letter, like the variable x. Since all amino acids have different make-ups, this used for later reference.

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What are the covalent bonds of two amino acids called?

Peptide Bonds

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What changes the specific functions of an amino acid?

The order they are linked together.

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How many levels are there to a proteins make-up?

3/4

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Primary (Protein)

The amino acid sequence (amino acids)

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Secondary (Protein)

How it folds/coils (a-helixes/b-sheets)

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Tertiary (Protein)

The final 3D structure of the protein (polypeptide chains)

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Quaternary (Protein)

Multiple coming together (complex of protein molecule)

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What is the difference between a monomer and a polymer?

A monomer is a single atom, small molecule, or molecular fragment that, when bonded together with identical and similar types of monomers, form a larger, macromolecule known as a polymer.

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Levels of Organization(Smallest to Largest)

Atoms, Molecules, Macromolecules, Cells, Tissues

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Structural Characteristics of Lipids

A glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acid tails (hydrophobic) + phosphate grp (hydrophillic)

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Structural Characteristics of Proteins

They contain variable group of a carboxyl group, a R(varient), and an amino group

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Structural Characteristics of Nucleic Acids

Long chainlike molecules composed of a series of nearly identical building blocks called nucleotides.

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Saturated vs Unsaturated Lipids

Saturated fatty acids have hydrocarbon chains connected by single bonds only. Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds.

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Relationship between DNA and proteins

DNA, RNA, and protein are all closely related. DNA contains the information necessary for encoding proteins, although it does not produce proteins directly. RNA carries the information from the DNA and transforms that information into proteins that perform most cellular functions.

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What does 'Iodine' test for?

Starches/Carbohydrates

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What does 'Benedict's' test for?

Sugar/Glucose

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What does 'Biuret' test for?

Proteins

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What does the term 'organic' mean? (In relation to what we are learning)

When it contains carbon

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Is a water molecule considered organic or inorganic?

Inorganic

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Is a glucose molecule considered organic or inorganic?

organic

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What molecule gets added to a polymer to pull it apart into smaller monomers?

Water

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What is the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in a molecule of glucose?

2:1

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What is the function of glycogen in animals and the function of starch in plants?

Energy Source

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What is the name of a plant carbohydrate that is used for structure?

Cellulose

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Which of the groups of organic compounds do not dissolve in water, and include fats, oils, and waxes?

Lipids (non-soluble)

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Which of the 4 groups of organic compounds consist of a head and tails arrangement, and may be used for long-term energy storage?

Lipids (long-term storage)

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True or false: lipid structure is a long chain of carbons usually surrounded by hydrogen

True

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6 glucose molecules are bonded together to make a short starch molecule. How many water molecules needed to be removed via dehydration synthesis in order to bond all of the glucose molecules?

5

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A cell is trying to replicate its polymer of Nucleic Acid in order to pass on its genetic information on to its offspring. What is the cell duplicating?

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

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Which group on the structure is the group that gives this monomer its "identity" (what makes it different from other monomers of the same group)?

The Functional Group

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A sunflower is growing in a pot by the window in the classroom. Every week it gets taller and taller. What carbohydrate is the sunflower using to grow more?

Cellulose (to grow)

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The COOH is known as the...

Carboxyl Group

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What is the NH2 group called?

Amino Group

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10 Amino Acids are bonded together using dehydration synthesis. There are 9 total bonds that hold them all together. What kind of bond is there between the amino acids?

Peptide

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