PSYC Quiz 5

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personality disorders

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personality disorders

psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

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a disorder where the individual perceives the symptoms to be undesirable--making them more likely to seek treatment

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the individual perceives her behavior as correct, normal, or in harmony with her goals--less likely to seek treatment

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Average number of comorbid personality disorders amongst people who have a personality disorder

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- Big give personalty traits

- openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism

- Extreme on either end could indicates personality disorder

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the tension between the desire to share private thoughts, feelings, and experiences with intimates and the desire to preserve personal privacy

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someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized

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The extent to which people are social or unsocial, talkative or quiet, affectionate or reserved

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softhearted or ruthless, trusting or suspicious, helpful or uncooperative

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Neuroticism/emotional stability

calm or anxious, secure or insecure, self-satisfied or self-pitying

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categorical classification

- Most commonly used

- A system of placing disorders in categories with the assumption that each disorder is clearly different from every other disorder

-"all-or-none" approach.

- Based on the model in which every diagnosis has a distinct set of characteristics and underlying cause.

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dimensional model

model in which a mental disorder differs from normal functioning in degree rather than kind. Not broadly used

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Cluster A disorders

Odd or eccentric traits, socially isolated behavior. (not the same as schizophrenia). Schizoid and schizotypal are v. comorbid.

- Paranoid

- Schizoid

- Schizotypal

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paranoid personality disorder

A personality disorder marked by a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness of others, with no justification. Applies to all aspects of life. (4+ symptoms)

- Reluctance to confide in others

- Reads hidden meanings in benign actions

- Holds long grudges,

- Doubts loyalty of others,

- Thinks others are lying

- Jealous and suspicious

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schizoid personality disorder

detachment from social relationships and restricted range of emotional expression (4+ symptoms)

- Doesn't want/like social relationships.

- Almost always chooses solitary activities

- Little if any interest in sex

- Takes pleasure in few if any activities

- Indifferent to praise/criticism

- Lacks close friendships other than direct relatives

- Coldness, detachment, flat affect

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Schizotypical Personality Disorder

Interpersonal and social defects with discomfort and reduced capacity for relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, eccentric behavior (not to level of psychosis). Needs 4+ symp.

Cognitive Symptoms

- Odd beliefs and magical thinking

- Ideas of reference

-Unusual perceptual experiences.

Interpersonal Symptoms

- Suspiciousness/paranoid thinking

- Lack of close relationships

- Social anxiety

- Inappropriate affect

Disorganized symptoms

- Odd speech and behavior

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theory of mind

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states—about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.

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Cluster B personality disorders

Dramatic, Emotional, Erratic behavior

- antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic personality disorders

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antisocial personality disorder

Disregard for safety/rights of others. Does not exhibit prosocial behavior. Must be 18 or older, and have history of conduct disorder by age 15. 3+ symptoms

- Disrespect to laws

- Manipulative/deceitful

- Impulsive

- Irratibility/aggression

- Reckless disregard for safety of self/others

- Doesn't take responsibility

- Lack of remorse

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learning deficits

Antisocial pd and Psychopathy causes difficulties learning about emotions and consequences

-Hypothesis 1: Emotional deficits causes a lack of fear of punishment.

- Hypothesis 2: Can't think about longterm consequences, which makes them impulsive.

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borderline personality disorder

condition marked by extreme instability in mood, identity, and impulse control. Higher diagnosis in women. Needs 5+ symptoms.

- Frantically avoids abandonment

- Intense unstable relationships that range between extreme idealization and devaluation

- Unstable self-image, doesn't know who they are.

- Impulsive, can be hedonistic,

- Out of proportion reactivity of mood

- Chronic feelings of emptiness, needs to be completed.

- Inappropriate intense anger.

- Recurrent suicidal behavior/self harm

- Stress related paranoia and dissociative symptoms

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histrionic personality disorder

excessive emotionality and attention seeking. Almost always diagnosed in women. Needs 5+ symptoms

- Uncomfortable when not center attention

- Rapidly shifting/shallow emotions

- Uses appearance to get attention

- Impressionistic speech w/out detail

- Theatrical, dramatic emotion

- Suggestible, easily influenced

- Thinks relationships are more intimate than they are, lacks inhibition

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Narcisstic Personality Disorder

grandiosity, need for admiration, lack of empathy. Needs 5+ symptoms

- Grandiose self worth

- Fantasies of unlimited success

- Tries to only associate w/ people of high status

- Needs lots of admiration

- Entitled

- Uses others for gain

- Lacks empathy

- Jealous, or thinks others are jealous

- Arrogant, looks down on others

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Etiology of Cluster A

-highly heritable

-links to schizophrenia: relatives of individuals with schizophrenia at greater risk for schizotypal

-enlarged ventricles, less grey matter

- Imaipred theory of mind

- Childhood abuse/neglect

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Treatment of Cluster A PDs

Cluster A PD's are characterized by reluctance to seek treatment

- Paranoid: Create trust environment, challenge irrational thoughts.

- Schizoid: Work on social skills.

- Schizotypal: Low dose antipsychotics, CBT, family/life skills training.

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Psychological/Social Factors for BPD

- Core feature is emotional dysregulation

- Lower threshold to activate emotion, feels more intense, takes a while to get back to baseline.

- Engages in dangerous self-soothing activities

- Invalidating or abusive early environments

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Neurological factors for BPD

HYPERactive amygdala

HYPOactive frontal lobe

Low sertotonin

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dialectical behavior therapy

Extreme, holistic CBT. A form of treatment in which the focus is on getting people to accept who they are, and know change must occur.

- Work on emotional regulation

- Tolerate distress

- Interpersonal effectiveness

- Emotional regulation

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grandiose vs vulnerable narcissism

Grandiose: higher self esteem, exhibitionism

Vulnerable: Insecure, depressed, reactive aggression. "Why don't people like me",

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treatment for narcism

Often go because of bad relationships, develop depression.

- Negative feedback

- Appropriate career goals

- Challenge self-worth

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Cluster C disorders

anxious and fearful behavior

Avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive disorders

- Least studied, has little comorbidity

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avoidant personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by inhibition in social situations; feelings of inadequacy; oversensitivity to criticism. Needs 4+ symptoms

- Avoids interpersonal job activities

- Not willing to be involved in with others unless certain of being liked.

- Restraint in relationships for fear of shame

- Preoccupied with shame/rejection in social situations

- Inhibited in new social situations

- Views self as inept, unappealing, inferior

- Won't try new things for fear of embarrassment.

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Epidemiology of Avoidant PD

higher in women, starts in early childhood. Worst reported quality of life.

Treated with group CBT, best treated personality disorder.

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Avoidant PD vs. Social Phobia

Avoidant PD can be more severe.

- Increased social withdrawal.

- Fewer friends

- Nonspecific, generalized.

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dependent personality disorder

a personality disorder characterized by helplessness; excessive need to be taken care of; submissive and clinging behavior; pervasive insecurity. 5+ symptoms.

- Difficulties making both major and minor decisions.

- Needs others to be responsible for life.

- Won't express disagreement for fear of disapproval.

- Can't start projects on their own, lacks confidence in self

- Goes to extreme lengths to be nurtured.

- Feels helpless when alone, fear of unable to care of self

- Urgently seeks relationships when one ends.

- Unrealistically afraid of having to take care of self,

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obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and control. Can't tolerate uncertainty. Needs 4+ symptoms

- Preoccupied w/ lists, rules

- Perfectionism interferes w/ task completion

- Neglects loved ones for work

- Rigid and stubborn

- Over concerned w/ rules

- Can't discard worthless objects

- Refuses to delefate tasks.

- Very frugal spending style

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epidemiology/treatment dependent pd

More common in women. For treatment, clinician can't be nurturer. Difficult to prescribe homework between sessions.

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epidemiology/treatment of obsessive compulsive pd

No gender differences. Treatment addresses need for control, relaxation techniques

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OCPD - Enjoys being organized, feels relaxed when done

OCD - Doesn't enjoy compulsions, unwanted and intrusive, rigid. Thinks matter of life and death

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Antisocial PD vs. Psychopathy

Psychopathy is more expansive than ASPD. Not all people with ASPD are psychopaths, but all psychopaths have ASPD

Psychopathy: parasitic lifestyle, doesn't plan for future, superficial charm.

Both: Diminished empathy response, irresponsibility

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Antisocial vs borderline personality disorder

ASPD: Abandons people, father can be risk factor

BPD: Idolizes people then devalues them, dysphoric and dissociative symptoms, family dysfunction is risk factor

Both: Impulsive, criminality runs in family, burns out with age, hard to treat.

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