Psych of Women Exam 2

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Sex difference in activity in infancy


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Sex difference in activity in infancy

d = .29 to .64

Sex difference in inhibitory control in infancy

d = -.41 ♀

Sex difference in perceptual sensitivity in infancy

d = -.38 ♀

Sex difference in negative affect in infancy

‐.06 ♀

Sex difference in attention in infancy

focusing d = -.15; purposeful shifting d = -.31

At what age do children generally recognize the difference between male and female voices? Faces?

as early as 3-4 months

What is the gender segregation effect?

children tend to group themselves according to sex, or into boys' groups and girls' groups. This is one of the most powerful and pervasive social phenomena to exist in early childhood

How do mother's expectations of their baby's ability to crawl up an incline differ by sex?

mothers of boys thought that boys would make it farther. on average, mothers produced estimates 5° steeper for boys' crawling ability than for girls' ability and 13° steeper for boys' crawling attempts than for girls' attempts. A difference of 13° represents more than 33% of the range in infants' attempts.

Describe the Baby X study, and what it informs us about people's expectations of babies, based on the baby's sex (of if sex is not disclosed)?

The present study investigated adult behavior while interacting with a three month-old infant. under conditions in which the child was introduced as a boy,as a girl, or with no gender information given. Gender labels did not elicit simple effects, but rather interacted significantly with the sex of the subject on both toy usage and physical contact measures. made assumptions about baby's sex and host of stereotypes come out of that schema.

gender constancy

realization that gender is invariant despite superficial changes in a person's appearance or behavior

gender identity

one's sense of being male or female

gender stability

awareness that gender remains the same over time

appearance rigidity

Rigid adherence to gender norms in appearance, such as wearing highly masculine or feminine clothing and avoiding clothes typical of another gender

gender consistency

during the late preschool and early school years, children understand that sex is biologically based and remains the same even if a person dresses in "cross-gender" clothes or engages in nontraditional activities

gender dysphoria

the condition of feeling one's emotional and psychological identity as male or female to be opposite to one's biological sex.

Discuss trans-affirmative practice

gender affirming care that is respectful and supportive of experiences of transgender and gender nonconforming individuals ex: name, pronoun use, clothing

At what age do children develop gender identity?

18 to 24 months

At what age do children develop gender constancy?recogni

60 to 72 months

At what age do children recognize the sex of other children?

18 to 24 months

Define gender essentialist and how this describes preschoolers.

men and women act differently and have different options in life because of intrinsic or essential differences between the sexes. preschool children tended to evaluate the same ambiguous behaviors more harshly when the perpetrator was a boy as compared to a girl

Describe Tobin et al.'s (2010) gender self-socialization model.

a model of the structure and the dynamics of gender cognition in childhood. The model incorporates 3 hypotheses featured in different contemporary theories of childhood gender cognition. The model distinguishes three constructs: gender identity, gender stereotypes, and attribute self-perceptions. The model specifies 3 causal processes among the constructs: Gender identity and stereo-types interacts with attribute self-perceptions; gender identity and attribute self-perceptions interacts with gender stereotypes; and gender stereotypes and attribute self-perceptions interacts with identity.

Define socialization.

the process by which society conveys to the individual its expectations for his or her behavior, values, and beliefs

Describe channeling (also called shaping), and how parents' channeling socializes a child (often into gender stereotypical roles).

Gradually molding or training an organism to perform a specific response (behavior) by reinforcing any responses that are similar to the desired response. Talk differently with daughters vs. sons, though much of gender teaching in parents' talk is subtle, implicit Play differently with daughters vs. sons Have different expectations for boys and girls

Discuss how parents differentially treat boys and girls, through both language and behaviors.

parents use more physical punishment with boys than with girls. they also found that mothers used more supportive speech with daughters than with sons

Discuss how parental modeling affects a child's gender development.

A child's earliest exposure to what it means to be male or female comes from parents. From the time their children are babies, parents treat sons and daughters differently, dressing infants in gender-specific colors, giving gender-differentiated toys, and expecting different behavior from boys and girls.

Discuss how teacher behaviors continue to socialize children outside the home (attention and gender salience in the classroom).

teachers pay more attention to boys teachers praise girls for decorous conduct and boys for good academic performance salience condition showed significantly increased gender stereotypes, less positive ratings of other-sex peers, and decreased play with other-sex peers.

Identify ways that the media influences children's gender development.

toy commercials: usually gender-specific picture books: feminine traits in female characters video games: patterns of extreme gender stereotyping, including violence against women; played more by boys

Understand the three stages of gender constancy development and what occurs in each stage.

  1. Gender identity (~18 to 24 months)

  2. Gender stability (~36 to 48 months) -appearance rigidity -label boys and girls (~36 months) -associate certain attributions with either male or female -associate occupations with gender

  3. Gender consistency (~60 to72 months) *Gender self-socialization after gender constancy develops

Be able to discuss implicit and explicit gender identity preferences in transgender and cisgender children.

Transgender children's toy and playmate preferences match gender identity NOT birth sex when compared with CIS-gender peers and siblings (both explicit and implicit measures)

Describe gender intensification in early adolescence.

beginning in adolescence, girls and boys experience increased pressure to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles.

Discuss Erikson's (1950) adolescence developmental stage identity vs. role confusion, with emphasis on sex differences he proposed in identity development. What is the contemporary response to this androcentric theory?

During this stage adolescents need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Focus on males (androcentric theory); girls in a state of "identity suspension"

What are differences between male and female same-sex friendships, and what tends to happen with friendship composition during adolescence?

Girls' friendships: more intimate, more self-disclosure and emotional support, girls tend to have a few very close friends Boys' friendships: less intimate, shared group activities

Describe both male and female development of secondary sex characteristics during adolescence, and how this may differentially impact psychology of the individual (particular emphasis on budding breast and menarche).

female: menarche, hormones, breast development, pubic hair male: facial hair, deepening voice

What is the age difference in the onset of the male and female growth spurt, and how might this affect the psychology of girls? Boys?

Different growth spurts (♀ age 9; ♂ age 11) (prior to puberty)* Girls finish puberty about two years before boys. Girls gain more fatty tissue than boys; boys gain more muscle tissue than girls

Discuss effects of pubertal timing.

Overall, there was little evidence of persistent, long-term effects of early pubertal timing, with the exception of a small group of girls at greater risk for depression in young adulthood. Attenuated effects of this kind might suggest either recovery by early maturers or "catch-up" by on-time/late maturers.

Describe how the experience of puberty may differ for transgender youth and trans-affirmative care during this period.

Pubertal changes don't align with gender identity Transaffirmative practice -Pubertal suppression - medical suppression of development of gender inconsistent secondary sex characteristics -Gender affirming hormone treatment - hormones promote development of gender-consistent secondary sex characteristics --Not recommended before age 16 --Less reversible consequences on reproductive system

Define co-rumination and discuss sex differences and psychological repercussions.

"fat talk"

What is sexualization (also sometimes called sexual objectification) and what effects does this have on the adolescent girl?

sexually objectifying a person girls learn to view their bodies as if they were outside observers sexual harassment by peers low self-esteem

Describe objectified body consciousness, and the sex difference in the experience.

girls learn to view their bodies as if they were outside observers

Discuss the trajectory of girl's self-esteem during adolescence, and some of the possible causes.

receive sexual harassment from peers, and their self esteem plunges in adolescence.

At what average age do American women marry today, and what percent of women are married by age 40?

average age of first marriage is ~27

Discuss advantages/disadvantages of marriage, and psychological well-being of women who never marry.

Men have better psychological and health outcomes. Recent stats, Men and women report better outcomes than single counterparts. Advantages of being single -Freedom -Sense of self-sufficiency and competence ♀ Women who are satisfied with long-term single status -Satisfying employment that provides economic independence -Connections to next generation -Strong social support network

Know the outcome of the 2015 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges.

A case in which the Court held that the Fourteenth Amendment requires states to license and recognize same-sex marriage

What is the U.S. divorce rate?

40-50% of all marriages end in divorce

Discuss economic effects of divorce on women.

Divorced women and their children are new underclass Divorced men experience a 42% increase in standard of living, whereas women experience a 35-73% decrease

What percent of divorced women remarry?

70-75% of divorced women remarry

What conclusions were drawn in Jessie Bernard's (1972) His and Hers Marriage?

Marriage is better for men than for women, but good for both Quality of marriage is most important

Discuss medicalization of childbirth, and the alternative methods available today.

Shaving, Enemas, Anesthesia, Episiotomies Cesarean Section

Discuss maternity blues, possible causes, and the estimated number of mothers that experience this.

characterized by crying, anxiety, andirritability, typically begins three to four days after childbirth and lasts about two to four days. 75%