AP Psych Unit 4

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Classical Conditioning

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Psychology

70 Terms

1

Classical Conditioning

One learns to associate two or more stimuli and anticipate events

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Example of Classical Conditioning

Teaches one to prepare for good or bad developments once a certain stimuli has been received - sound, touch, etc.

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3

Who discovered Classical Conditioning

Ivan Pavlov

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4

Operant Conditioning

Idea that behaviors are strengthened and if followed by a reinforcer or diminished by a punisher

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5

Who discovered Operant Conditioning

B.F. Skinner

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6

Shaping

a procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior (example - rewarding dog for sitting down, then laying, then finally rolling over, can take several steps and/or progressions)

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Positive reinforcement

giving the subject something it wants (food for example)

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8

Negative reinforcement

taking away something the subject does not like or want (removing a collar or leash from a dog, for example)

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9

Fixed Ratio

number of behaviors the organism must do to be rewarded is always the same - guaranteed by behavior

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10

Example of Fixed Ratio

you get a free coffee for every 10 you buy at starbucks

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11

Effect of Fixed Ratio on behavior

organism pauses briefly after reinforce before returning to a high rate of responding. better for high quality tasks.

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Variable Ratio

The number of behaviors the organism must do to be rewarded changes each - not guaranteed by behavior

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13

Example of Variable Ratio

You pull the lever to see if maybe this quarter will win you the jackpot

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Effect on behavior of Variable Ratio

Better for low quality tasks. resistant to extinction.

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15

Positive Punishment

the administering of an aversive stimulus (giving a traffic or speeding ticket, for example)

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16

Negative Punishment

withdrawal of rewarding stimulus (take away driving privileges from a 16 year old, for example)

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17

Extinction (in classical conditioning)

diminishing of a conditioned response following the conditioned stimulus

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18

Extinction (in operant conditioning)

when a response is no longer enforced and the behavior fades

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19

Observational Learning

internal meaning there are no consequences

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Albert Bandura (toy clown experiment) (Observational Learning)

says learn by watching someone doing something

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21

Modeling (Observational Learning)

imitating a certain behavior

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22

Mirror Neurons (Observational Learning)

imitations + empathy

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23

Semantic Memories (Observational Learning)

long term memories based off language not experience - effective in teaching children

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24

prosocial/antisocial behavior (Observational Learning)

taken in by children/observers

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25

Contingencies (Observational Learning)

something might or might not happen because of genetic/environmental factors

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Insight learning (Unrealized learning)

suddenly come up with a solution (coming up with answer out of nowhere)

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27

Emotional learning (Unrealized learning)

effectively learn to manage emotions

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28

Latent Learning (Unrealized Learning)

occurs without realization until you need it

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29

Self-Control (Behavior)

ability to control impulses, and weakens after exertion

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Behavior Modification (Behavior)

changing behavior with reinforcer/punisher

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Biofeedback (Behavior)

conscious moving of limbs without automatic function

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Superstitious Behavior

accidentally rewarded and believe it to be true

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Taste Aversion

bad experience with food leads to never eating specific food

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John Garcia

developed taste aversion in rats for almost all foods after giving them radiation

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Learned Helplessness

stop doing something because someone else will/you don’t want to

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Edward Thorndike

law of effect

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Robert Rescorla

contingency/classical conditioning

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Edward Toleman (Motivation)

behavior is based on goals and purpose

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Learned behavior

idea that all behavior is based on experience

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40

Learning

process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors (i.e. habits, which take roughly 66 days to form)

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Associative Learning

learning that certain events occur together

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Behaviorism

field of psychology that believes should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes, ignoring cognitive learning

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Cognitive Learning

learning through mental processes such as observation and language (i.e. watching or listening to an explanation to learn)

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44

Neutral stimuli (NS)

a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning

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45

Unconditioned response

natural response to stimuli, such as salivation

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Unconditioned stimulus (US)

a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response

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Conditioned response (CR)

a conditioned response to a previously neutral stimulus

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48

Conditioned stimulus (CS)

an originally irrelevant stimulus that, when paired with an unconditioned stimulus triggers a conditioned response

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49

Ivan Pavlov Dog Experiment

Ivan Pavlov’s famous experiment taught a dog to salivate upon hearing a bell.

He essentially took the unconditioned (untaught) stimulus—the food—and noted its relationship to the unconditioned response—salivation. A bell, which merits no response from the dog’s unconditioned salivation, was considered a neutral stimulus.

After feeding the dog several times immediately after the bell, Pavlov noted the previously neutral stimulus—the bell—became a conditioned stimulus. The bell now caused the dog to salivate, as the dog learned to anticipate food following the bell.

Salivating now became the conditioned response to the hearing of a bell

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50

John Watson's Baby Albert Experiment

furthered behaviorism in humans with ‘Baby Albert’ experiments where conditioned a baby to cry/fear furry animals using a loud noise as the unconditioned stimulus

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B.F. Skinner

pioneered new ideas that expanded the understanding of learned behavior and what Watson called Behaviorism

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52

Reinforcement

an event that strengthens the behavior behind it, can be used as a reward to encourage behavior in animals and humans (example: teaching dog to sit by rewarding with a treat each time)

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Punishment

an event that diminishes behavior behind it with an adverse consequence, can be used to discourage undesired behaviors in animals and humans (example: teach toddler not to scream in house by issuing a time out)

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54

discriminative stimulus (operant conditioning)

the stimulus that elicits responses after association with a reinforcer (in the case of the dog, the discriminative stimulus is ‘roll over’)

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primary reinforcers

an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need (i.e., food/a treat)

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secondary (conditioned) reinforcers

can be effective as they are linked or associated with primary reinforcers - primary reinforcer cannot be provided every time

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example of secondary reinforcer

If you pair the treat with a ‘good boy,’ eventually the ‘good boy’ will be as good of a reward as the treat, thus negating the need for a primary reinforcer every time

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Primary reinforcer

Money or tokens for humans that can be exchanged for primary reinforcers

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Acquisition - Classical Conditioning

when the neutral stimulus (NS) begins to trigger the conditioned response (CR)

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60

Acquisition - Operant Conditioning

acquisition is achieved through the strengthening of a reinforced response

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61

acquisition

when the subject is successfully anticipating after a stimulus or performing the desired behavior

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Spontaneous recovery

the sudden reappearance of an extinguished CR, following a break or pause of the CS (randomly rolling over on command after no listening several times)

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Generalization

subject may respond to a stimulus that seems similar, but is not the conditioned stimulus

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64

Discrimination

the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimulus that hears, looks, smells, feels, or tastes similar

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65

High-order learning

One can also layer more stimuli by adding additionally conditioned stimuli to the already-existing conditioned stimulus.

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66

practice

subjects and people can start to learn slowly and easily with progressively fulfilling results along the way

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67

Continuous reinforcement

reinforces a response every time the desired behavior occurs

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68

Partial/Intermittent reinforcement

reinforces a response only part of the time

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Fixed Interval

the amount of time between reinforcements is always the same

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70

Variable Interval

the amount of time between reinforcements differs

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