periodic trends

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the more charges there are, the _____ the attractive or repulsive force is

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honors chem unit 3

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the more charges there are, the _____ the attractive or repulsive force is

stronger

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the closer together the particles are, the _____ the attractive or repulsive force is

stronger

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the number of energy levels in an atom depends on what ___ it is in

row

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the number of valence electrons depend on what ____ it is in

column

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atomic radius

the distance from the nucleus to the outmost energy level

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as you go down a column, atomic radius ___

increases

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as you go across a row on the periodic table, atomic radius ___

decreases

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cation

positive ion

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cations are smaller than neutral atoms. why?

they lost an energy level

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anion

negative ion

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anions are larger than neutral atoms. why?

they have stronger electron-electron repulsion

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largest common ions

I-, Br-

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smallest common ions

Li+, Be+2, Na+, Mg+2

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ionization energy

the energy needed to remove an electron from an atom

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why is energy required to remove an electron from an atom?

to break the attraction between electrons and the nucleus

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higher ionization energy means

that an electron in the atom is harder to remove

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lower ionization energy means

that an electron in the atom is easy to remove

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as you go down a column on the periodic table, ionization energy ________

decreases

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as you go across a row on the periodic table, ionization energy ________

increases

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electronegativity

attraction for electrons in a bond

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why is it impossible to measure electronegativity for most of the noble gases?

they don't form bonds

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more electronegative means that the atom

really wants electrons

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less electronegative means

the atom doesn't want electrons

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as you go down a column on the periodic table, electronegativity ________

decreases

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as you go across a row on the periodic table, electronegativity __________

increases

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very reactive element

if it reacts with many different types of elements, reacts relatively quickly, and releases lots of energy during the reaction

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less reactive element

if it reacts with few different types of elements, reacts relatively slowly, and releases little energy during the reaction

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the lower the element's ____, the greater its reactivity

ionization energy

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why bigger atoms have lower ionization energy and high reactivity

The bigger an atom is, the farther its valence electrons are from the positively charged nucleus, so the weaker the force of attraction is between its valence electrons and the nucleus, so the easier it is to remove an electron from the atom. Therefore, the bigger a metal atom is, the lower its ionization energy is, and the higher its reactivity is.

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for the metals, reactivity ____ as you go down a column of the periodic table

increases

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why does reactivity increase as you go down a column of the periodic table?

More EL → Larger atoms → Lower IE

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for the metals, reactivity ____ as you move to the right across a row of the periodic table

decreases

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why does reactivity decreases as you move to the right across a row on the periodic table?

More protons → Smaller atoms → Higher IE

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the greater the element's ____, the greater its reactivity

electronegativity

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why is the bigger a nonmetal atom is, the lower its electronegativity is, and the lower its reactivity is

the bigger an atom is, the farther its valence electrons are from the positively charged nucleus, so the weaker the force of attraction is between its valence electrons and the nucleus, so the weaker the atom pulls on an attracts other electrons

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for the nonmetals, reactivity ____ as you go down a column of the periodic table

decreases

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why does nonmetal's reactivity decrease as you go down a column in the periodic table?

More EL → Larger atoms → Lower EN

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for the nonmetals, reactivity ______ as you move to the right across a row of the periodic table

increases

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why does reactivity increase as you move across a row of the periodic table?

More protons → Smaller atoms → Higher EN

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which element is more reactive, sodium or potassium?

potassium; Potassium atoms are larger than sodium atoms because potassium has more energy levels. Therefore, potassium has a lower ionization energy, so it is easy for the atoms to lose electrons (which is how metals react).

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Which element is more reactive, potassium or calcium?

potassium; Potassium atoms are larger than calcium atoms because potassium has more fewer protons, which results in a weaker force of attraction on the electron cloud. Therefore, potassium has a lower ionization energy, so it is easy for the atoms to lose electrons (which is how metals react).

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Which element is more reactive, nitrogen or oxygen?

oxygen; Oxygen atoms are smaller than nitrogen atoms, because oxygen has more protons, which pull in the electron cloud closer to the nucleus. Therefore, oxygen has a stronger attraction for electrons (electronegativity) which means it is easier for the atoms to gain electrons (which is how nonmetals react).

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Which element is more reactive, chlorine or iodine?

chlorine; Chlorine atoms are smaller than iodine atoms, because chlorine has fewer energy levels. Therefore, chlorine has a stronger attraction for electrons (electronegativity) which means it is easier for the atoms to gain electrons (which is how nonmetals react).

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which of the following atoms is the largest?

platinum

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what is bigger an O2- ion or an F- ion?

an O2- ion is bigger

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A Ca2+ ion is _____ than a K+ ion because it has ________.

smaller, more electron-proton attraction

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Calcium atoms ____________.

form cations by losing 2 electrons

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A sodium ion (Na+1) has ___ energy levels and ___ valence electrons

2, 8

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Sulfur has a ______ ionization energy than selenium does, because ______.

higher, its valence electrons are closer in toward the nucleus

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The smaller an atom is, the ____ its ionization energy is and the ______its electronegativity is.

greater, higher

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The electronegativity of an atom is most directly related to its

distance between the nucleus and its valence electrons

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An atom of sodium will most likely lose ___ electrons to become a charge of ___ .

1, +1

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An atom of nitrogen will most likely gain ___ electrons to become a charge of ___ .

3, -3

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