Chapter 1: Matter, Energy, and Measurement

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Chemistry

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Chemistry

42 Terms

1

Chemistry

The study of the properties and behavior of matter.

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2

Matter

The physical material of the universe; anything that has mass and takes up space.

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3

Property

Any characteristic that allows us to recognize a particular type of matter and distinguish it from other types.

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4

Elements

Substances that combine to create matter.

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5

Atoms

The tiniest particles that are the building blocks of matter.

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6

Molecules

Two or more atoms bonded together.

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7

States of Matter

Solid, liquid, and gas.

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8

Solid

Fixed volume and shape, molecules packed tightly together.

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9

Liquid

Fixed volume, takes shape of container, molecules move fast.

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10

Gas

No fixed volume or shape, takes shape of container, molecules are far apart.

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11

Pure Substances

Matter with distinct properties and a composition that does not vary.

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12

Elements

Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances, composed of one kind of atom.

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13

Compounds

Can be decomposed, made up of two or more elements.

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14

Mixtures

Combinations of two or more substances, can have various compositions.

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15

Physical Properties

Observable without changing identity or composition of substance.

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16

Chemical Properties

Describe how a substance may change or react to form other substances.

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17

Intensive Properties

Do not depend on the amount of sample being examined.

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18

Extensive Properties

Depend on the amount of sample.

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19

Physical Changes

Substance changes physical appearance but not composition.

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20

Chemical Changes

Substance transforms into a new substance.

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21

Separation of Mixtures

Filtration separates solids from liquids or gases, distillation separates substances based on different abilities to form gases.

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22

Energy

The ability to do work or transfer heat.

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23

Work

Energy transferred when a force is exerted on an object causing displacement.

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24

Heat

Energy used to increase temperature of an object.

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25

Force

Any push or pull exerted on an object.

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26

Kinetic Energy

Energy of motion.

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27

Potential Energy

Stored energy.

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28

Electrostatic Potential Energy

Arises from interactions between charged particles.

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29

SI Units

Preferred metric units for science.

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30

Physical Quantity

Length, mass, temperature, time, amount of substance, electric current, luminous intensity.

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31

The Scientific Method

Collect information, formulate hypothesis, test hypothesis, formulate theory, repeatedly test theory.

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32

Temperature

Kelvin (K) for temperature, Celsius (C) and Fahrenheit (F) for conversions.

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33

Derived SI Units

Volume (m³), density (mass/volume), energy (joule, J), calorie (cal), kilojoule (kJ).

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34

Exact Numbers

Defined values, no uncertainty.

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35

Inexact Numbers

Values with uncertainty, from measurements or errors.

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36

Precision

Measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another.

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37

Accuracy

How closely individual measurements agree with the correct value.

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38

Significant Figures

All digits of a measured quantity, indicate precision.

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39

Adding and Subtracting Significant Figures

Answer has same number of decimal places as measurement with fewest decimal places.

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40

Multiplying and Dividing Significant Figures

Answer has same number of significant figures as measurement with fewest significant figures.

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41

Dimensional Analysis

Units multiplied or divided along with numerical values.

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42

Conversion Factors

Fractions used to convert between units.

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