Bio Chapter 6 WORKING

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Chromatids

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39 Terms
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Chromatids

Tightly coiled chromosomes, shaped like half an X

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Sister Chromatids

Connected chromatids forming an X

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Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis

Order of mitosis

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Prophase

The stage of mitosis in which DNA condenses into tightly coiled chromosomes, the nuclear envelope breaks down, and centrioles move to poles and form spindle fibers

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Metaphase

The stage of mitosis in which spindle fibers attach to each chromosome, which each line up along the cell equator (middle)

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Anaphase

The stage of mitosis in which chromatids separate to opposite sides of the cell

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Telophase

The stage of mitosis in which the nuclear membrane starts to form, chromosomes uncoil, and spindle fibers fall apart

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Cytokinesis

The stage of mitosis in which animal and plant cells divide

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Homologous Chromosome

Chromosomes containing the same genes

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Autosomes

Chromosomes containing your traits

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Sex Chromosomes

Chromosomes determining biological sex

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23

How many chromosomes do haploid cells have

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46

How many chromosomes do diploid cells have

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Somatic Cells

What type of cells are diploid?

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Sex Cells

What type of cells are haploid?

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2n

Symbol for diploid

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n

Symbol for haploid

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Somatic Cells

Cells making up body & tissue

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Germ Cells

Sex cells before maturity

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Gametes

Mature sex cells

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Before meiosis

When does DNA replication occur for meiosis?

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Meiosis I

The overall stage of meiosis in which genetic info is exchanged creating 2 haploid cells

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Meiosis II

The overall stage of meiosis in which sister chromatids are divided creating 4 cells with a diploid number of chromatids

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Crossing Over

The process in prophase I in which genetic info is exchanged between homologous chromosomes

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Gametogenesis

The production of mature gametes

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Fertilization

The initial fusion of egg & sperm

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Zygote

The ultimate union of an egg & sperm

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X & X

Female sex chromosomes

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X & Y

Male sex chromosomes

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Prophase I

The specific stage of meiosis in which chromosomes get into homologous pairs & genetic information is exchanged

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Metaphase I

Homologous pairs line up along the middle of the cell

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Independent Assortment

During Metaphase I, homologous pairs line up in different orders to create genetic diversity, a process known as _______

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Anaphase I

The specific stage of meiosis in which homologous pairs separate from each other

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Spermatogenesis

The process in which males produce 4 equal sperm, lasting from puberty until death

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Oogenesis

The process in which females produce an egg

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Polar Bodies

3 are produced during oogenesis and are eventually broken down

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Prophase I

The meiosis process that begins in females as a fetus

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DNA

Sperm contributes ___ to an embryo

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DNA, Cytoplasm, & Organelles

Eggs contribute ___ to an embryo

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