Religious Wars

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Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

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1

Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

The agreement signed in 1559 between France and Spain which formally ended the Habsburg-Valois wars. Spain emerged victorious, with an exhausted France recognizing Spanish dominance in Italy.

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2

Francis I

ruled France from 1515-1547, his reign largely marked by attempts to gain revenue to pay for the costly Habsburg-Valois wars. He sold public offices and arranged a treaty with the papacy (Concordat of Bologna), the latter of which proved a long term source of income.

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3

Henry II

ruled France from 1547-1559 during the closing years of the Habsburg-Valois wars. Known for his harsh persecution of the growing Huguenots population in France, he was killed in a jousting tournament celebrating the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis when a splinter from the joust pierced his eye and brain. Married to Catherine de Medici.

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4

Concordat of Bologna

The agreement between the King of France and the Pope signed in 1516 which the church receives the first year's income of bishops and abbots in exchange for the crown's right to select those bishops and abbots, effectively now controlling church policy.

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5

Catherine de Medici

Married to Henry II, upon his death, she dominated her 3 weak sons who became kings of France as she served as regent. She kept her sons on the throne while navigating religious crises until her death in 1589

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6

Huguenots

the term for French Calvinists, most of whom lived in major cities by the mid-16th century.

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7

Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre

August 24th, 1572: a series of savage Catholic attacks and assassinations in Paris during the wedding of the king's sister to a Huguenot. The event triggered religious violence throughout France and eventually civil war.

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8

War of the 3 Henrys

the final conflict in the French wars of religion from 1587-1589 between Henry III (supported by royalists), Henry of Navarre (Huguenots) and Henry of Lorraine (Catholic League); eventually won by Henry of Navarre

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9

politiques

term to describe French and Protestant moderates who held that only a strong monarchy could save France from total collapse

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10

Henry IV

King of France from 1589-1610. Ended the French wars of religion as he converted to Catholicism as "Paris is worth a Mass". He issued the Edict of Nantes and prepared France for absolutism by restoring internal peace. Assassinated by a Catholic fanatic.

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11

Edict of Nantes

1598 - issued by Henry IV and granted liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship to Huguenots in 150 fortified towns.

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12

bourse

The name for the great market of Antwerp where 5000 merchants gathered to exchanged the vast amount of goods, raw materials, and cash.

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13

Philip II

king of Spain from 1556-1598; ruled during the "Golden Age"; instigated the Spanish Armada, married into the English monarchy (Mary Tudor), oversaw a brutal repression of the Dutch revolt, and was considered the last "Defender of the Faith"

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14

Duke of Alva

Ruthless General sent to the Netherlands by Philip II to pacify Dutch rebels in the mid-17th century; instituted the Inquisition and the "Council of Blood" as part of the attempt to quell Catholic nationalism

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15

William of Orange (the silent)

the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581. He originally served the Habsburgs, but was unhappy with the centralization of political power away from the local estates and with the Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants.

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16

Union of Utrecht

The alliance of seven northern provinces (led by Holland) that declared its independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands in 1579

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17

Escorial

The Spanish palace northwest of Madrid that served as Philip II's official residence and a monastery for meditation and prayer.

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18

Spanish Armada

1588 - Philip II's attempt to reimpose Catholicism in England led to this failed naval invasion. Poor weather, bad luck, and a faster, motivated opponent led to a decisive defeat. While not the overwhelming victory some claim, the victory inspired the English for generations and prevented Philip II from reimposing religious unity on western Europe.

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19

Thirty Year's War

(1618-1648) Conflict within the Holy Roman Empire that starts locally as a dispute between Catholics and Protestants that develops into a European war pitting dynastic ambitions (Habsburg vs. France vs. Sweden vs. Holy Roman Empire) against religious tensions (Catholic, Lutheran, Calvin).

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20

Protestant Union

The coalition of Protestant German states that was formed on May 14th, 1608 by Calvinist Frederick IV, Elector Palatine in order to defend the rights, lands and person of each member. It included both Calvinist and Lutheran states. As an armed group, it was instrumental in igniting the first phase of the Thirty Years' War.

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21

Catholic League

The coalition of Catholic states of the Holy Roman Empire formed 10 July 1609 "for the defense of the Catholic religion and peace within the Empire". As an armed group, it was instrumental in igniting the first phase of the Thirty Years' War.

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22

Defenestration of Prague

Bohemian nobles rose up against their king by throwing two Catholic officials out the window because the king wouldn't respect their religious beliefs

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23

Bohemian Phase (30YW)

1st phase of 30YW; Frederick V (elected king of Bohemia and king of palatinate) v. Ferdinand II (Hapsburg Catholic king overthrown by bohemian nobles); Catholics "won" and brought counter-reformation to Bohemia

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24

Ferdinand II

Emperor who revoked Bohemian Protestant freedoms; ruler at beginning of 30 YW; defeated rebels at the Battle of White Mountain

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25

Danish Phase (30YW)

2nd phase of 30YW; Christian IV enters war to support protestant cause and get land. Ferdinand hires Wallenstein who defeats Christian IV. Ferdinand issues Edict of Restitution.

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26

Albrecht von Wallenstein

Mercenary general paid by the emperor to fight for the HRE during the Danish phase, winning many important battles against the Protestants.

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27

Edict of Restitution

Effect of Danish phase; returned all confiscated catholic church lands to the church; angered the nobles

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28

Swedish Phase (30YW)

3rd phase of 30YW; Gustavus Adolphus invades HRE; helped with financial support from the French in an attempt to weaken the Habsburgs

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29

Gustavus Adolphus

King of Sweden and head of Swedish military. Called "father of modern warfare" due to being the first military commander to make use of military artillery in battle. Won a decisive victory for Protestants at Battle of Breitenfield (1631)

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30

French Phase (30YW)

Fourth and final phase of 30YW, marked by France's entry on side of the Protestants to weaken Hapsburg power; gave Protestants support needed to defeat the French.

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31

Peace or Treaty of Westphalia

Ended 30YW in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion--either Protestant or Catholic

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32

Elizabeth Hardwick

Orphaned daughter of a country squire who acquired land and wealth through 4 marriages; built 2 large mansions; died one of the richest people in England; established aristocratic dynasties

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33

witch

Defined by the Chief Justice Coke of England as " ... a person who hath conference with the Devil to consult with him or to do some act." European witch scare reveals timely attitude towards women. Witchcraft was heresy and during this hunt almost 1000 witches were killed in England

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34

sabbats

Assemblies of witches where they were thought to feast and dance with the devil, participate in orgies and cannibalism, and fly

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35

Skepticism

Philosophy based on the belief that nothing can be known for certain

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36

Michel de Montaigne

Developed literary genre of the essay; published his Essays; rejected claim that one culture could be superior to others, bringing in a new era of doubt

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37

Sir Philip Sidney

Poet from the Elizabethan/Jacobean period, strongly influenced later poetic writing; wrote Astrophel and Stella

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38

Edmund Spenser

Author of The Faerie Queene, seen as greatest moral epic in any language

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39

Christopher Marlowe

English poet and playwright who introduced blank verse as form of dramatic expression

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40

William Shakespeare

Co-owner of Globe Theatre; writer of plays; genius lay in originality of characters, diversity of plots, understanding of human psychology, and gift for language. True Renaissance man.

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41

baroque

Elaborate and extensive in decorative art, music, and architecture that flourished in Europe in the 17th century

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42

Peter Paul Rubens

Famous Baroque artist who studied Michelangelo in Italy and took that Renaissance style to the next level of drama, motion, color, religion, and animation in his paintings

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43

Johann Sebastian Bach

German baroque organist and composer; composed Mass in B Minor; music director of Church of Saint Thomas in Leipzig; reputation as one of greatest composers of all time

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