Communications Exam 2

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Experiement

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68 Terms

1

Experiement

Manipulating a variable or 2 & observing the effects of another variable or 2

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Advantages of Experiment

-Cause & Effect Relationship -Gives you control

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Limitations of Experiment

Experiments might not be accurate outside the lab

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4

Survey

Involves collecting information from a large group of people on a large group of topics

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5

Advantages of Surveys

-Studies how people perceive their worlds -Larger samples(compared to experiments)

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6

Limitations of Surveys

People can LIE 1)to mess with you 2) to try and get what you want to hear 3)try and make themselves look good

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7

Available Data

Looking at things that already exist

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8

Advantages of Available Data

-Non-reactive -Don't have to rely on someone's memory -Great way to study the past

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9

Limitations of Available Data

Sometimes the data does not exist

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10

Field Research

Observing someone's behavior/communication in the natural setting

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11

Advantages of Field Research

-Watching it in real time(no lying) -Lets you study things you can't stimulate in a lab

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12

Limitations of Field Research

-NO Control -Need the ability to be observant in a non-bias way

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13

Unit of Analysis

Individuals Dyads Groups Organizations

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14

Independent Variable

Think Predictor -Impact on others -Cause (only in an experiment)

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15

Dependent Variable

Think Outcome -being influenced/being impacted -Effect (only in an experiment)

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16

Intervening Variable

In Between predictor & outcomes/independent & dependent

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17

Control Variables

variables researchers want to be held constant throughout the duration on the study

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18

Qualitative Variables

Think Type -Looking at different categories

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19

Quantitative Variables

Think amount/numbers -Always counting & comparing

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20

Shape of the Relationship

Positive Relationship: Variables move in the SAME direction Negative Relationship: Variables more in the OPPOSITE direction Curvilinear Relationship: Relationship between variables MOVE from one point to another Independent: NO relationship

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21

Strength of the Relationship: Correlation Coefficient

Further from 0 in either direction (+ or -) = STRONGER

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22

Strength of the Relationship: Genetic Criteria for Social Sciences

.50(-.50)= STRONG relationship .30(-.30)= MODERATE relationship .10(-.10)= SMALL relationship

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23

Abstract

Brief summary of the study

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24

Introduction

Statement of the problem, information we don't have but need

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25

Literature Review

A write up of a relevant study,occurrences,theories, models...

Includes: Conceptual definitions of Variables Rational or argument for research questions and/or hypothesis Research questions and/or hypotheses

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26

Methods Section

Blueprint of the study that has to include enough detail for you to replicate the study

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27

What is in the Methods Section?

-Type of Research -How was the Study Conducted -Who -Operational Definitions

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28

Results/ Findings Section

What they found objectively (not their opinion) Usually displayed using stats, tables, charts

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29

Discussion Section

Results are restates in "plain english" Not meant to be objective its meant to be persuasive

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30

What is in the Discussion Section?

-Explanations -Implications -Limitations -Future Directions

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31

Assumptions of Uncertainty Reduction Theory

  1. People experience uncertainty in interpersonal settings & generate stress 2)When strangers meet the primary concern is reduce uncertainty & increase predictability 3)Interpersonal comm. is a developmental process that occurs through stages, it is the primary need of uncertainty reduction 4)The quantity and nature of info that people share changes overtime

  2. It is possible to predict people's behavior in a law-like fashion

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Axioms of Uncertainty Reduction Theory

As Uncertainty decrease, Verbal Comm increases As Uncertainty decrease, Nonverbal affiliative expressiveness increases As Uncertainty increases, Information seeking increases As Uncertainty decrease, Intimacy level of Comm increases As Uncertainty increases, Reciprocity increases As Uncertainty decrease, Similarity increases As Uncertainty decrease, Liking Increases

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33

Passive Strategies

Watching someone without being observed

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Active Stratagies

Finding out about a target person by asking a third-party

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Interactive Strategies

Obtaining information directly from your target person

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Critique for Uncertainty Reduction

  • Utility (-) -Heurism (+)

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37

Social Exchange Theory Terms: Comparison Level

Threshold by which an outcome seems attractive Minimum amount we should see in a relationship to see as a reward

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Social Exchange Theory Terms: Comparison Level for Alternatives

Measure how people evaluate a relationship compared to realistic alternatives to that relationship

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39

Social Exchange Theory: Assumptions about Relationships

  1. Relationships are interdependent 2)Relational life is a process

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Social Exchange Theory: Assumptions about Humans

  1. Humans are rational 2)Humans seek rewards & avoid punishments 3)Humans calculate cost & benefits with varying standards

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Basic Premise of Social Exchange Theory

  1. People enter relationship/conversations because they are rewarding

  2. When we find a relationship/conversation rewarding we want to maintain it

  3. When a previously rewarding relationship is no longer rewarding we look for a new and/or better relationship

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42

Critique for Social Exchange

-Heurism(+) -Scope(-) -Utility(-) -Testability(-)

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43

Assumptions of Relational Dialectics Theory

  1. Relationships are NOT linear

  2. Relational life is characterized by change

  3. Contradiction is the fundamental factor for relational life

  4. People use communication to manage naturally opposing forces in relational life

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44

Autonomy vs Connection

Conflicting desires to be independent of our significant other and to find intimacy with them at the same time

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45

Novelty vs Predictability

Conflicting desires for the comfort of stability and the excitement for change

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Openness vs Protection

Conflicting desires to be open & vulnerable with your significant other and also wanting to be strategic, private, and protective in communication with significant other.

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47

Cyclic Alternation

We choose different poles for different stages of life with our partner

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Segmentation

We choose different poles for different context in life

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Selection

Choosing one pole and you act as if there is no other option

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50

Critique for Relational Dialectics

-Utility (+) -Parsimony (+) -Heurism (+)

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51

Assumptions of Critical Theory of Organizational Comm.

1)Corporations are political as well as economic institutions 2)Comm. is NOT the transmission of info but info perpetuates corporate dominance 3)Comm. is the ongoing social construction of meeting and that issues of power run through all languages & comm.

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52

Information Model

Where a message is treated solely as a message

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53

Communication Model

Considers message, who said it & how it was said

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54

Management Control

Management has primary input in decision making

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55

Codetermination

Employees start to have input into decision making

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Quadrants

-Strategy -Consent -Involvement -Participation

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Critique of Critical Theory of Organizational Comm.

Logical Consistency (-) Utility (-)

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58

Assumptions of Organizational Culture Theory

1)Org. members create & maintain a shared sense of org. reality 2)Uses & interpretations of symbols are critical to an org. culture 3)Cultures vary across org.; the interpretations within the subcultures are diverse

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59

Communication Performances: Ritual

Regular & recurring presentations of a workplace

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Communication Performances: Passion

How people feel about the org.

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Communication Performances: Social

Behaviors used to demonstrate civility & politeness

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Communication Performances: Political

Behaviors that demonstrate power,control, & influence

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Communication Performances: Enculturation

Stories/behaviors that demonstrate what people think it is

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Ritual Performance: Personal

Regular & recurring presentations of a workplace

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Ritual Performance: Task

When we do our specific job duties

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66

Ritual Performance: Social

Involve relational maintenance informally

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67

Ritual Performance: Orginizational

Formal event help by the org.

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68

Critique of Organizational Culture Theory

-Logistical Consistency(-) -Utility(+) -Heurism(+)

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