Chapter 19: The Increasing Influence of Europe - Practice Test Questions

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Who was the theme system undermined by, and when?

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Sample questions to help study for the test! Reminder, I do not know if these questions will actually be on the test. However, it does help to study rather than be knowledgless!

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1

Who was the theme system undermined by, and when?

wealthy landowners — 11th century

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2

Free peasants became ______.

agricultural laborers

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3

Who pressed on Byzantine territories?

Normans (from Scandinavia)

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4

What year was Constantionople sacked?

1204 C.E

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5

There were crusades from the _____ and _____ centuries through what territory?

  • 12th - 13th

  • Byzantine

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6

Who invaded Anatolia? What did they threaten?

  • Muslim Saljuqs

  • grain supply

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7

What did the defeat of the Byzantine army create?

civil conflict

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8

What were the three challenges from the East?

  • Muslim Saljuqs — grain supply

  • Defeat of Byzantine army — 1071

  • Period of steady decline until 1453

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9

Who controlled most of Anatolia, and who controlled the rest?

  • Seljuqs

  • crusaders from Western Europe

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10

Who captured Constantinople, and under who? What did they rename it?

  • Ottoman Turks

  • Mehmed II

  • Istanbul

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11

Who took advantage of the Carolingian empire? What did he establish, and when?

  • Otto I of Saxony

  • Kingdom in north Germany

  • mid 10th century C.E

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12

How many times did Otto enter Italy?

twice

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13

What was Otto named, and by who / when?

  • emperor of Holy Roman Empire

  • Pope John XII, 962 C.E

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14

What were three significant tensions between Emperors and the Church?

  1. Investiture Contest

  2. Pope Gregory VII attempting to end lay investiture + exocommunicating Emperor Henry IV

  3. German peoples taking the opportunity to rebel

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15

What is lay investiture?

secular rulers (kings / emperors) appoint bishops and other church officials

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16

The Investiture Contest was from what centuries?

late 11th - early 12th

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17

Who tried to end the practice of lay investiture?

Pope Gregory VII

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18

Who did Pope Gregory VII exocommunicate?

Emperor Henry IV

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19

Who took the opportunity to rebel when there were tensions between the emperors and the church?

German people

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20

What is Frederick I’s nickname?

the red beard

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21

What did Frederick attempt to do? Was he succesful?

  • absorb Lombardy (northern Italy)

  • no

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22

What did Voltaire state about the Holy Roman Empire?

neither holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire

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23

Who succeeded the last Carolingian Emperor? When?

  • Hugh Capet

  • 987 C.E

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24

Who invaded England, under who?

  • Normans

  • William the Conqueror

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25

Who was the Papal State directed by?

the Pope

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26

By what century did city states displace church control? What region of Italy did this happen?

  • 12th

  • northern (Florence, Bologna, Genoa, Milan, Venice)

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27

Who invaded southern Italy? Who did they displace?

  • Normans

  • Byzantine & Muslim authorities

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28

Who controlled the Iberian peninsula from 8th - 12th centuries?

Muslims

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29

Who conquested Spanish Muslim territories? By the late 13th century, where did they remain?

  • Christians

  • Granada

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30

What were the four major changes in Europe?

  • Agricultural production

  • Urbanization

  • Manufacturing

  • Trade

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31

What were the four significant changes during the growth of Europe’s agricultural economy?

  • Increasing development of arable lands

  • Improved agricultural techniques

  • New tools

  • New crops

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32

Why did nobles oppose arable lands at first?

These lands were seen as game preserves where they could hunt. But then, they saw that tax revenue could go up, and saw that it was a positive.

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33

What were two improved agricultural techniques?

  • crop rotation

  • fisheries

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34

What were two new agricultural tools?

  • Horeshoes

  • Horse collars

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35

What was one new significant crop?

beans — protein, nitrogen fix

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36

What is urbanization similar to?

the agricultural revolution

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37

Why was Italy sucessful with Mediterranean trade? Where were Italy’s major ports established?

  • They were well-positioned.

  • Mediterranean & Black Sea

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38

What is Hansa?

an association of trading cities

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39

What were The Three Estates?

  • those who pray: clergy

  • those who fight: knights

  • those who work: peasants

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40

What did the Three Estates system become?

an oversimplification of complex social reality

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41

What is chivalry? Who was it sponsored by?

  • a code of conduct for nobles / knights

    • protection of women

  • Church

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42

Why did the Church sponsor chivalry?

to minimize fighting among Christians

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43

Who were the troubadours?

a class of traveling poets, minstrels, and entertainers

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44

What did the troubadors popularize?

  • romantic love

  • refinement of European knights

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45

What were the additions to the class of peasants?

  • merchants

  • artisans

  • physicians

  • lawyers

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46

By what century did towns demand charters of intergration?

late 11th century

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47

What is a guild, and what did it create? What can it be compared to in modern day?

  • organizations of merchants, workers, artisans

  • a social support system

  • unions

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48

By the 13th century, guilds controlled a good portion of what?

urban economy

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49

When women got new economic opporutinities, what occupations did they dominate?

textiles and decorative arts

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50

In the high middle ages (1000 - 1300 CE), what made education possible?

increasing wealth

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51

What were schools based in? What was the cirrculum?

  • cathedrals

  • literature, philosophy, some law, medicine, theology

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52

In the twelfth century, a new type of guild was formed. What was it?

academic guilds

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53

Latin translations of what circulated throughout Europe? What did Jewish and Muslim scholars provide?

  • Byzantine Greek texts

  • other translations from Arabic translations

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54

Who was St. Thomas Aquinas? (1225 - 1274 C.E)

a major proponent of Scholasticism

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55

In general, was the population affected by Scholasticism?

No.

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56

What are the seven sacraments?

  1. Baptism

  2. Confirmation

  3. Matrimony

  4. Penance

  5. Eucharist or Communion

  6. Taking care of the sick

  7. Holy Orders

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57

What are the three main things about the concept of devotion to saints?

  • heavenly intercession

  • pilgrimages

  • veneration of relics

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58

Who was a significant Saint, and still is to this day?

The Virgin Mary

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59

What concept was there a rebellion against in the Roman Catholic church?

percieved materialism

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60

Two saints created orders of _____. Who were these two saints?

  • mendicants

  • St. Dominic (1170 - 1221 C.E)

  • St. Francis (1182 - 1226 C.E)

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61

What did Dominic and Francis oppose? They are also called _____.

  • heretical movements

  • religious zealots

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62

What were two heresy groups?

  • Waldensians (southern France, northern Itality)

  • Bogomils; Cathars (Albigensians)

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63

The Waldensians urged _______.

lay control of preaching and sacraments

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64

Where did Albigensians (Bogomils and Cathars) flourish? They were _____ regimes.

  • Byzantium + Western Europe

  • ascetic

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65

What kings were converted to Christianity? Who followed?

  • Kings of Denmark

  • Sweden and Finland

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66

The Kings of Denmarks subjects resisted against conversion, but converted over time. Why?

There’s money for both rulers and merchants if you’re Christian.

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67

Who formed military-religious orders? What were these three orders?

religious Christians

  1. Templars

  2. Hospitallers

  3. Teutonic Knights

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68

What were the three concepts warrior societies were based on?

  1. secrecy

  2. riutal

  3. devotion

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69

What were the five significant things religious Christians did?

  1. formed military-religious orders

  2. had religious vows of opposition to Islam, paganism

  3. founded churches and monasteries

  4. protected pilgrims to the holy land

  5. set up a monetary system for pilgrims

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70

What modern day system is similar to the monetary system?

cashier checks

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71

Where do Normans come from? Who are they descendants of?

  • Normandy, region of modern France

  • Vikings

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72

Two small Christian states survived the Muslim conquest. What states were they? What did they become?

  • Catalonia and Leon

  • the nucleus of reconquest (1060s - 1492 C.E)

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73

What pope called for the liberation of Jerusalem, and in what year?

  • Pope Urban II

  • 1095 C.E

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74

What does “deus vult” mean? This phrase came from _____.

  • God wills it!

  • Pope Urban II

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75

The First Crusade was from ______ to _____ C.E.

1096 - 1099 C.E

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76

During the 1st Crusade, what capital was captured, and why?

  • Jerusalem

  • poor Muslim organization

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77

What region was taken by Muslims in the 9th century? Who was it reconquered by in the eleventh century?

  • Sicily

  • Normans

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78

When was Jerusalem recaptured, and by who?

  • 3rd Crusade (1187 C.E)

  • Muslim leader Salah al-Din (Saladin)

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79

How many crusades happened by the mid 13th century? Were they succesful?

  • five

  • no.

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80

What crusade destroyed Constantinople?

the Fourth Crusade

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81

What were the pros of these crusades?

  • direct contact with Muslim ideologies & trade

    • Aristotle, “Arabic” numerals, and paper production were all traded @ this time

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82

By the 12th century, what increasingly displaced church control in northern Italy?

city-states

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83

In the Hanseatic League, what seas did trade mainly take place? What countries?

  • Baltic and North seas

  • Poland, northern Germany, Scandinavia

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84

When the Scandinavians explored the North Atlantic Ocean, what countries did they decide to settle in? What settlement did not work?

  • Iceland, Greenland, Vinland (Canada)

  • Canada

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