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He was the first philosopher who ever engage in a systematic questioning about the self
He said that when three components of the soul are attained, the human's soul becomes just and virtuous
He followed the view of Plato but he added Christianity.
For him, the worst thing that can happen to anyone is to live but die inside
lives eternally in spiritually bliss with God.
Following the view of Plato but adds Christianity, St. Augustine claims that the body dies on earth, but the soul _________.
Mary has the capacity to decide what is factual and obvious, she can judge what is untrue. What part of the soul is responsible for Mary's sensible decisions?
Nica experiences effortless cravings that are required for her to stay alive like hunger and thirst. What part of the soul is accountable for Nica's desires?
They all believed that a man is a dual nature of body and soul, except?
For Socrates and Plato, the goal of life is to be happy. One becomes happy if one?
He states that what truly matters is the behavior that a person manifests in his day-to-day life
question myths and moved away from them in attempting to understand reality and respond to perennial questions of curiousity
water is the arche
four elements Others
St. Thomas Aquinas
Adapting some ideas from Aristotle, he said that indeed, man is composed of two parts: matter and form.
Refers to the "common stuff that make up everything in the universe". Man's body is part of the matter
Refers to the "essence of a substance or a thing." It is the soul that animates the body.
COGITO and EXTENZA
For Descartes, the self is also a combination of two distinct entities.
An empiricist who believes that one can only know what comes from the senses and experiences.
Idea and Impressions
To Hume, the self is nothing else but a bundle of impressions that can be categorized into two.
there is necessarily a mind that organizes the impressions that men get from the external world
He solved the mind-body dichotomy that has been running for a long time in the history of thought
Says that mind and body are so intertwined that they cannot be separated from one another.
French anthropologist who explained the phenomena of the ability of the self to adapt to different circumstances.
A view that the 'person' and their 'social context' where the boundaries of one cannot be separated from the boundaries of the other
It refers to a person's sense of who he is, his body and his basic identity, his biological givenness.
It is composed of the social concepts of what it means to be who he is
is another interesting aspect of social constructivism.
people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world through their experiences and their reflections upon these experiences.
One of the earliest psychologists to study the self and conceptualized the self as having two aspects - the "I" and the "Me".
He believed that humans have one basic motive, that is the tendency to self-actualize
i.e., to fulfill one's potential and achieve the highest level of 'human-beingness' we can.
Our organized system or collection of knowledge about who we are.
He saw the self, its mental processes, and one's behavior as the results of the interaction between the Id, the Ego, and Superego.
The self is created and developed through human interaction.
internal standards and private thoughts and feelings
your public image commonly geared toward having a good presentation of yourself to others.
it is who you are at the moment
who you like to be
who you think you should be.
Too much self-awareness that we are concerned about being observed and criticized by others.
The loss of individual self-awareness and individual accountability in groups.
Social Comparison Theory
We learn about ourselves, the appropriateness of our behaviors, as well as our social status by comparing aspects of ourselves with other people.
Downward Social Comparison
we create a positive self-concept by comparing ourselves with those who are worse off than us.
Upward Social Comparison
comparing ourselves with those who are better off than us.
Self-evaluation Maintenance Theory
We can feel threatened when someone outperforms us, especially when that person is close to us.
A trait that is characterized by overly high self-esteem, self-admiration, and self- centeredness.
It is focued on having a harmonious social life
seen as the ultimate purpose of life. also called "subdued self" Personal needs are repressed for the good of many
a man of virtue or noble character
The ideal self is selfless but this is not forgetting about the self
the self is also the source of all these sufferings.
-Forget about the self -Forget the craving of the self -Break the attachments with the world -Renounce the self
To attain the state of Nirvana
The focus is on the person/self
Group and social relations is given more importance
reproductive glands that produce the gametes; testis or ovaries
is an organism with both male and female genitalia.
Individuals having accessory reproductive structures that do not "match" their gonads.
Individuals who possess both ovarian and testicular tissues, but this condition is rare in nature.
a condition in which one or both of the testes fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum
is a process where a single cell divides twice to produce four cells containing half the original amount of genetic information.
narrowing of foreskin of the male reproductive structure and misplaced urethral opening.
a condition that affects only females, results when one of the X chromosomes (sex chromosomes) is missing or partially missing.
a genetic condition that results when a boy is born with an extra copy of the X chromosome.
the first menstrual period of females which happens 2 years after the start of puberty.
are more common in young and elderly women and in those whose resistance to disease is low.
inflammation of testes that can cause sterility.
Sexual behavior involving only one individual
self-stimulation that leads to sexual arousal and generally, sexual climax.
Heterosexual behavior is the greatest amount of sociosexual behavior that occurs between only one male and one female.
engage in sexually stimulating caressing and touching
the insertion of the male reproductive structure into the female reproductive organ.
in modern Western societies, it is more likely to be tolerated but not encouraged if the individuals intend marriage
in most societies, it is considered as an obligation.
involving wives is generally condemned and, if permitted, is allowed only under exceptional conditions or with specified persons.
coitus by separated, divorced or widowed person.
it is caused by increase in pulse and blood pressure;
If stimulation is continued, orgasm usually occurs.
a rapid increase in pulse rate and blood pressure, and spasms of the pelvic muscles
return to a normal or subnormal physiologic state.
abnormal development of the genitalia or that part of neuropsychology controlling sexual response. Negative emotions can definitely affect the behavior of an individual.
Premature emission of semen
Caused by excessive tension in male who has been sexually deprived.
is almost always of psychological origin in males under 40;