APHG Chapter 7 Core Content

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What are the major Hispanic groups in the US?

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1

What are the major Hispanic groups in the US?

The major Hispanic groups in the US are Mexican (2/3) and Puerto Rican.

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2

What are the major Asian groups in the US?

The major Asian groups in the US are Chinese (25%), Indian (20%), Filipino (20%), Korean (10%), and Vietnamese (10%).

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3

Provide an example to illustrate that African-Americans or Hispanics in the US are more urbanized (likely to live in cities) than whites.

90% of African Americans and Hispanics live in urbanized areas, compared to the average 75% of all Americans. Detroit contains over half of Michigan’s African American population. Hispanics comprise ¼ of the New York City population, but only 1/16 in the rest of the state of New York.

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4

In what region of a typical American city are ethnic groups concentrated? Why there?

Ethnic groups are concentrated in neighborhoods in typical American cities because during the early 20th century, immigrants were attracted by the pull factor of the Industrial Revolution, and stayed in neighborhoods while working. Descendants of these immigrants became the ethnic groups we see living in neighborhoods today.

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5

Summarize the historic migration patterns of Migration from Africa.

Africans were forced into migration as slaves for the Western Hemisphere starting in the 17th century. During slavery’s peak in the triangular slave trade in the 19th century, slaves primarily went to the Caribbean and the United States (British colonies), and the remainder to Central and South America. The Portuguese would ship their slaves to Brazil and other Portuguese land masses.

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6

Summarize the historic migration patterns of Migration to the North.

Following the Emancipation Proclamation, sharecropping grew in popularity (working on a field and getting a share of the crop), but began to decline in the 20th century. African Americans migrated out of the South to the East coast (Boston, Baltimore, New York City, and Philadelphia), East central (Detroit and Cleveland), West central (St. Louis and Chicago), and Southwest (California). This migration occurred in two main waves: before and after WWI in the 1910s and 1920s, and before and after WWII in the 1940s and 1950s because war stimulated the need for factory workers.

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7

Summarize the historic migration patterns of Migration within cities (ghettos).

After African Americans had settled into urban areas, they clustered in neighborhoods, referred to as ghettos. In 1950 in Baltimore, most African Americans lived in ghettos in a 3-square-kilometer area. Densities in ghettos were higher than those in typical American suburbs and many were forced to live together. In the 1950s and 1960s, ghettos began to expand.

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8

What does the US Census Bureau consider Hispanic/Latino?

The Census Bureau does not consider Hispanic/Latino a race, so they are able to select any race they want (black, white, or other).

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9

What is the difference between “African-American” and “black”?

African-American refers to extensive cultural tradition, while black solely refers to skin color.

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10

What is racism?

The belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.

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11

Describe Separate But Equal

The Separate But Equal doctrine was widely upheld following the Supreme Court ruling of Plessy v. Ferguson that separate facilities for black and white were constitutional. This was used to create the Jim Crow laws that segregated public places and more. This included places like schools, restaurants, buses, hotels, shops, etc.

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12

Describe White Flight

After the overturning of segregation with Brown v. Board of Education, instead of integrating with blacks, whites fled from places expected to have an increasing black population. An example of this was in Detroit.

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13

Describe blockbusting

Blockbusting was when real estate agents convinced white homeowners to sell their homes at low prices in fear that black families would move in and further devalue the homes.

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14

Define apartheid

The physical separation of races into different geographical areas.

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15

Explain the key components of the apartheid system

When a baby was born, it was classified as either white, black, colored (mixed), or Asian, each having a different status. Blacks could not vote, run for political positions, and were restricted to lower paying occupations.

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16

What happened in 1795 in South African history?

The British seized the Dutch colony and took control of South Africa.

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17

What happened in 1948 in South African history?

Afrikaner (white)-dominated Nationalist Party won elections, gaining power at a time when colonial power was beginning to be replaced by local black governments. To guarantee a held political power, the Nationalist Party created the apartheid laws. This established 10 key areas as “black homelands.” 4 of these homelands were created (Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, and Venda), and were drastically smaller in size. The white minority government expected all black citizens to move into one of these places.

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18

What happened in 1991 in South African history?

Apartheid laws were appealed, and the primary antiapartheid organization, the African National Congress was legalized, and its leader, Nelson Mandela was freed from prison after over 27 years.

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19

What happened in 1994 in South African history?

Nelson Mandela became the country’s first black president.

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20

Define nationality

Nationality is identity with a group of people who share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular country.

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21

How does nationality differ from ethnicity?

Ethnicity is cultural values shared within ethnicity come from religion, language, and material culture. Nationality is cultural values shared within a nationality come from voting, obtaining a passport, and performing civic duties.

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22

Define self-determination

The concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves

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23

Define nation-state

A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.

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24

Why is Denmark a fairly good example of a nation-state? Use specific regions to explain

Denmark is a fairly good example of a nation-state because Danish ethnicity territory closely corresponds to the state of Denmark. Most Danes speak the same language, and most of the Danish language speakers are concentrated in Denmark. However, it is not a perfect example of a nation-state as the Faeroe Islands and Greenland speak different languages and identify differently.

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25

Briefly describe how Germany dealt with the issue of statehood and the pursuit of the nation-state ideal.

Germany dealt with the issue of statehood and the pursuit of the nation-state ideal by invading other nations to create a unified nation-state, and many German-speaking portions of nations were allowed invasion, but the invasion of Poland (a non-German-speaking country) invoked WWII.

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26

What is nationalism?

Nationalism is loyalty and devotion to a nationality.

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27

How do nations and states foster nationalism?

Nations and states foster nationalism by promoting symbols of the nation/state like flags or songs.

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28

What are centripetal forces? What are centrifugal?

Centripetal forces are attitudes that tend to unify people and enhance support for a state. Centrifugal forces are attitudes that tend to divide a state and create instability.

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29

What is a multiethnic state? Give an example.

A multiethnic state is a state with more than one ethnicity. An example would be the United States.

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30

What is a multinational state? Describe how the United Kingdom is an example.

A multinational state is a type of multiethnic state that contains ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities. The UK is an example of this because it has 4 distinct nationalities: Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and England.

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31

The ethnic divisions among the Eastern European states are blurred for what reasons?

The ethnic divisions among the Eastern European states are blurred because they all speak similar East Slavic languages and are predominantly Orthodox Christians.

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32

Why has the Crimean Peninsula of Ukraine been a bit of a problem?

The Crimean Peninsula of Ukraine has been a problem because both Ukraine and Russia wanted to claim it after the disbandment of the Soviet Union because it had the largest fleet of ships.

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33

What religions and languages are most common in the Central Asian countries?

The most common religions in Central Asia are Islam, then Orthodox Christian. The most spoken languages are Altaic languages and Indic languages.

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34

How many different nationalities (ethnicities) are found in the country of Russia? Why are independence movements flourishing among these groups?

  1. Independence movements are flourishing among these groups because Russia isn’t suppressing the movements forcibly like the former Soviet Union.

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35

Russia has resisted the independence movement in Chechnya for what TWO reasons?

  1. Russia feared that other ethnicities would attempt to gain independence if Chechnya did.

  2. Chechnya was rich in petroleum.

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36

How did communists suppress the issues of ethnicity and nationalism? (Give several examples.)

Communists suppressed the issues of ethnicity and nationalism by using centripetal forces like the Russian language, conformity in art and writings, and minimizing the role of organized religion.

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37

With the fall of communist governments in the 1990's, what kinds of problems have arisen in what places? (Give several examples.)

The fall of the communist governments in the 1990s caused problems with minorities in the new states (especially in the Balkans with the issue of mountains preventing peace with nation borders) such as opposing the majority ethnicities (Russians in Soviet Union, Serbs in Yugoslavia, and Czechs in Czechoslovakia).

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38

How did Lebanon’s 1943 constitution seek to solve the religion problem?

The president… Maronite Christian The premier… Sunni Muslim The speaker of the chamber of deputies… Shiite Muslim The foreign minister… Greek Orthodox Christian

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39

How has the make-up of Lebanon's population changed since 1943?

The make-up of the population changed after 1942 as Maronites lived in the West Central, Sunnis in the Northwest, Shiites in the South and East, Christians in eastern Beirut (the capital and largest city), and Muslims in western Beirut.

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40

What happened in 1975 in Lebanon? How has it been resolved?

In 1975, there was a civil war between each religious territory. This war ended in 1990 with an agreement that gave half of the 128 Parliament seats to each religion (Muslim and Christian).

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41

When the British ended colonial control of South Asia in 1947, what did they do in the region politically?

After the British ended colonial control of South Asia in 1947, it divided Pakistan and India into two states.

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42

When the British ended colonial control of South Asia in 1947, what did they do in the region ethnically/religiously?

Those living in India were predominantly Hindu, while those living in Pakistan were predominantly Muslim.

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43

How many people found themselves “on the wrong side of [the] boundary” of Pakistan and India in the 1940s?

About 17 million people

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44

How many Muslims migrated from India to West Pakistan (Pakistan, today)?

About 6 million Muslims

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45

How many Muslims migrated from India to East Pakistan (Bangladesh, today)?

About 1 million Muslims

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46

How many Hindus migrated from East and West Pakistan into India?

About 6.5 million Hindus from West Pakistan and about 3.5 million Hindus from East Pakistan

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47

What happened to many of the refugees as they traveled?

Many refugees were attacked and in some cases, massacred by extremists

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48

Where is Kashmir? What countries share its borders?

Kashmir is a northern region that is shared by Pakistan and India.

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49

Why is the region of Kashmir a problem politically?

India has control over southeastern Kashmir, and Pakistan over northwestern Kashmir.

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50

Why is the region of Kashmir a problem in terms of religion?

Majority Muslims have fought for sovereignty or reunification with Pakistan, but India heavily opposes this. Pakistan believes that the Kashmiris on both sides of the border should be able to choose.

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51

What are the 2 ethnic groups and % in Sri Lanka? What is their language (family, etc)? What is their religion? Where are they situated?

Sinhalese, 82%. Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European family. Buddhism. Southern Sri Lanka. Tamil, 14%. Tamil language of the Dravidian family. Hinduism. Northern Sri Lanka.

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52

How has violence between Sinhalese and Tamil (which goes back 2,000 years) been suppressed during the past 300 years?

Violence was suppressed during the 300 years under European rule.

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53

What occurred in 1948 in Sri Lanka? Which group is unhappy? Why?

In 1948, Sri Lanka gained independence from Europe, establishing a Sinhalese-dominated government, military, and commerce. Tamils were unhappy because they felt discriminated against by the Sinhalese-dominated government, leading to their rebellion in 1983.

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54

Take notes about the Kurds

Kurds are an ethnicity that is divided across the Caucasus south of the Armenians and Azeris.

The Kurds religion is Sunni Muslim, and they speak a language in the Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. They have their own distinct culture: literature, dress, and other traditions.

The Kurds once had their own nation-state, Kurdistan in the 1920s, but its population of 30 million got divided into several countries. 15 million people are displaced in Turkey, 6 million in northern Iraq, 5 million in western Iran, 2 million in Syria, and the rest in other countries. Kurds comprise 20% of Turkey’s population, 15-20% of Iraq, 8% of Syria, and 7% of Iran.

Following the division of the Ottoman Empire in WWI, the state of Kurdistan was created under the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres. However, the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 quickly established Turkey, with Kurdistan seizing to exist. Kurdish culture has been suppressed in Turkey, banning the Kurdish language until 1991 and laws banning the language in media or schools are still intact. Kurds have been waging a guerrilla war against Turkey since 1984.

Iranian Kurds obtained an independent republic in 1946, but it failed in under a year.

Iraqi Kurds have made independence attempts in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1970s. After Iraq’s defeat in the 1991 Gulf War, the Kurds undertook another unsuccessful rebellion. The United States and its allies briefly ended battles, but after the Kurdish revolt was crushed, they sent troops to protect the Kurds. After the death of Saddam Hussein, the Iraqi Kurds gained more autonomy, though not independence. The two Kurdish regional governments are run by Kurds, as are the police and the military.

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55

When boundaries were redrawn in Europe after World War II, what was the effect on various ethnic groups?

When boundaries were redrawn in Europe after World War Ii, many ethnic groups were forced to migrate.

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56

Define the term ethnic cleansing.

A process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one to create an ethnically homogenous region.

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57

List the countries of the Balkan Peninsula.

The countries of the Balkan Peninsula are Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, and former countries of Yugoslavia (Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, and North Macedonia).

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58

Regarding the Yugoslav refrain that was common during the rule of Josip Tito, what were the 5 nationalities?

Croats, Macedonians, Montenegrens, Serbs, and Slovenes.

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59

Regarding the Yugoslav refrain that was common during the rule of Josip Tito, what were the 4 languages?

Croatian, Macedonian, Serbian (also spoken by Montenegrens), and Slovene.

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60

Regarding the Yugoslav refrain that was common during the rule of Josip Tito, what were the 3 religions?

Roman Catholic (in the north, mainly Croats and Slovenes), Orthodox (in the east, mainly Serbs and Macedonians), and Islam (in the south, mainly Bosnians and Montengrens).

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61

Regarding the Yugoslav refrain that was common during the rule of Josip Tito, what were the 2 alphabets?

Roman alphabet (Croatian and Slovene) and Cyrillic (Macedonian and Serbian)

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62

What ethno-political problems did the country face after the death of Tito in the 80’s and fall of communism in the 90’s? Was Tito a centripetal or centrifugal force, Explain.

Ethnic rivalries caused the breakup of Yugoslavia after Tito’s death and the fall of communism. Tito was a centripetal force that united the Yugoslavian countries and maintained peace, and his death led to violence and instability.

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63

Why did Serbs and Croats in Bosnia (aka Bosnia-Herzogovina) ethnically cleanse themselves of Bosnian Muslims?

The Serbs and Croats in Bosnia ethnically cleansed themselves of the Bosnian Muslims because it would better their chances to unite with Croatia and Serbia.

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64

What was agreed upon at the accords signed between these rival ethnicities (Serbs, Croats, and Bosnian Muslims) in Dayton, Ohio, in 1996? Who got the best deal? the worst? Why would this group settle?

It was agreed that Bosnia was to be divided into 3 regions, one dominated by Croats, one the Muslims, and one the Serbs. The Serbs got the best deal with half of the country because of their successful ethnic cleansing. The Croats and Bosnian Muslims only received ¼ land each. The Muslims settled because of newfound power and freedom after facing ethnic cleansing.

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65

If peace comes to the Balkan Peninsula in the next few years, why will it be “in a tragic way,” according to the author of the textbook?

Peace will come in a tragic way to the Balkan Peninsula because it will mean that ethnic cleansing worked, creating an ethnically homogenous landscape.

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66

Give the historical background of the two rival groups of Central Africa’s countries of Rwanda and Burundi.

Hutus were settled farmers that grew crops in fertile valleys and hills in Rwanda and Burundi. Tutsi were cattle herders that migrated from the Rift Valley in Kenya to Rwanda and Burundi starting 400 years ago.

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67

Who were the colonial powers over Rwanda and Burundi? How did they reinforce ethnic rivalries there?

The colonial powers over Rwanda and Burundi were German colonies until WWI, becoming Belgian colonies. They reinforced ethnic rivalries by allowing Tutsis to attend university and hold government positions, but not let the Hutu do either.

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68

What happened when independence came to Rwanda and Burundi?

After independence came to the countries, the Hutus became the majority ethnicity and killed between 500,000-1,000,000 Tutsis in 1994 in retaliation to former injustices.

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69

Referring to the Figure 7-34, what are the challenges to the various ethnic groups in Africa and how did European colonialism possibly increase the tensions?

The challenges to the various ethnic groups in Africa is the fact that ethnic groups do not correspond to the states, with many multiethnic states. European colonialism and the Berlin Conference created geometric boundaries that invoked issues over governing and land allocation between the ethnicities.

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