ap lang final sem 2- (topics and grammar- no vocab)

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Simple (Sentence Structure)

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29 Terms

1

Simple (Sentence Structure)

Single independent clause (Neither Coordination nor Subordination!)

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2

Compound (Sentence Structure)

Two or more independent clauses connected with a comma, coordinating conjunction, or semicolon (Coordination!)

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3

Complex (Sentence Structure)

One independent clause and one dependent (subordinating) clause (Subordination!)

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4

Compound-Complex (Sentence Structure)

Two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent (subordinating) clause (Both Coordination and Subordination!)

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5

Coordination

Links two ideas of equal importance (Compound sentences)

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6

Subordination

Highlights the importance of one idea over another (Complex sentences)

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7

Thesis Statements

MUST state your claim and answer the prompt

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8

Introductions

Provide audience with the necessary context to grasp the problem or issue the essay is addressing.

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9

Content of a Body Paragraph

Claim, evidence, commentary, connection

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10

Conclusions

Move the reader’s attention from what you argued to “so what?” or “why this argument matters.”

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11

Commentary

Explains how your evidence supports the main idea and thesis

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12

Qualifying an Argument

Looking for limits and tensions of an argument.

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13

Concession

Recognition of a valid opposing viewpoint

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14

Exigence

The situation that motivated the writer to take a stand or have an opinion.

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15

SOAPS(Tone)

Speaker

Occasion

Audience

Purpose

Subject

(Tone)

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16

Fragments

Sentence without a subject

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17

Run-Ons

Two independent clauses incorrectly punctuated or without punctuation (can be fixed with a ;FANBOYS or subordinating or coordinating conjunction)

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18

Faulty Parallelism

Writer uses unequal grammatical structures to express related ideas (look for lists, comparison words, correlative conjunctions)

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19

Misplaced Modifiers

Modifiers that are placed too far from the word they are supposed to modify (look like they are describing something else in the sentence (usually something that does not make sense))

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20

Dangling Modifers

Modifiers that seem to modify the wrong word or no word at all because the word it should modify was omitted from the sentence

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21

Subject-Verb Agreement

Verbs must agree in number with subjects (Note: subject is considered singular when “each…and…” or “every…and…”)

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22

Both Singular and Plural Pronouns

All

Any

Some

None

More

Most

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23

Always Plural Pronouns

Much

Many

Few

Several

Both

Others

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24

Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

Pronoun and Antecedent must agree in both number and gender (Note: no need to determine gender if plural)

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25

Nominative Case Pronouns

I, he, she, we, they, you, it, who

When a subject or predicate nominative

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26

Objective Case Pronouns

me, him, her, us, them, you, it, whom

When a direct or indirect object, or when the object of a preposition

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27

Possessive Case Pronouns

my, mine, her(s), his, our(s), their(s), your(s), its, whose

To show possession (NOTE: they do NOT have an apostrophe!)

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28

Who vs. Whom

Who is the subject and is always followed by the verb (can be replaced with he/she)

Whom is the object of a sentence (can be replaces with him/her)

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29

Elliptical

Implied words after than or as

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