History Quiz 2

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440

Roman Bishop (Leo I) claims supremacy over other bishops

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843

Restoration of Icons in the Eastern Church

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1054

“Great Schism” (East-West) begins (ends 1965)

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1204

Constantinople attacked as part of the Fourth Crusade

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1453

Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks

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Canonization

in the RCC, the definitive sentence by which the pope declares a particular dead person to have already entered into heavenly glory and ordains for the new "saint" (a public cult throughout the Church)

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Ottoman Empire

Muslim empire of the Turks, established in Northern Asia Minor by Osman 1

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Ottoman Empire ultimately...

captured Constantinople

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Seljuk

a Turkish dynasty that ruled parts of Asia Minor

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Byzantium -- Constantinople

presently known as Istanbul, Turkey

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Advantage of Constantinople's site

strategically located for commercial and political influence

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Byzantium history summarized by...

periods: expansion, peril, recovery, disintegration

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Expansion

reign of Justinian

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Peril

the iconoclastic controversy

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Icons

religious images used to foster worship -- flat pictures, mosaics

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Iconoclasts

people who tried to destroy ALL icons

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Eastern Orthodoxy

the veneration of icons was allowed and they remain part of...

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Recovery

Byzantium experienced a "Golden Age"

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Disintegration

the Byzantium empire began to fall apart

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Byzantium Empire was lost at:

Manzikert to Muslim Seljuk Turks

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Byzantium's money economy

as opposed to a barter economy

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Byzantium's advanced military science

"Greek fire" -- worked like napalm (fire bomb or flame thrower)

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Byzantine empire government

a Centralized administration

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Caesaropapism

church-state link that enhanced unity and stability

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Three main branches of Christianity:

eastern orthodox, RCC, Protestantism

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Orthodox (Greek/Eastern)

internal witness of the Holy Spirit keeps the truth

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Roman Catholic Church (RCC)

asserts spiritual authority in tradition, the Pope, and the Scriptures

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Protestantism

asserts that spiritual authority rests in the inerrant Word of God (sola scriptura)

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Orthodox theology emphasizes...

sanctification -- justification is virtually absent

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barbarian invasions...

brought an upsurge in the Papacy's rise/position/authority

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Pope's claim to supreme authority...

also based on these factors that slowly coalesced: Petrine Theory and Apostolic succession

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Petrine Theory

the RCC insists that Christ gave to Peter a special rank as the 1st Bishop of Rome & leader of the apostles – Peter was the first pope & all subsequent popes inherited his authority

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Apostolic Succession

refers to bishops tracing a direct line of authority through the Apostles back to Christ

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Terms for the Pope

Papacy (office) -- Holy See -- Pontiff (used interchangeably)

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Peter serving as a Bishop of Rome:

a LEGEND, the NT has no mention of this

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Peter to Francis

266 Popes

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"Ex-cathedra" (from the chair)

When the pope speaks, it is viewed by the RCC as possessing divine authority equal to that of God in scripture --infallible

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the Medieval World

commonly termed the "Middle Ages"

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RCC functioned as...

"social cement" of the Middle Ages

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RCC performed...

record-keeping, judicial, and welfare functions

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Patrick

evangelized Ireland early in the 5th century -- facts confused by legend

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Clovis

King of the Franks

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Spain

fell under the rule of the Arian Visigoths

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King Recared

officially proclaimed the conversion of the people to Catholicism

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Gregory I or "Gregory the Great"

Pope that acted as a ruler of Rome

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Gregory I promoted:

clerical celibacy

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Gregory I affirmed:

the existence of a place of purification and thus gave impetus to the development of the doctrine of purgatory

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Purgatory

“a place or state in which are detained the souls of those who die in grace, in friendship with God, but with theblemish of venial sin or with temporal debt for sin unpaid. Here the soul is purged, cleansed, readied foreternal union with God in Heaven.”

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Suffering in purgatory:

twofold: physical pain + separation from God

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Sacraments

an efficacious sign of grace

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The seven sacraments:

Baptism, Holy Eucharist, Penance/Confession, Confirmation, Matrimony, Holy Orders, Extreme Unction

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Baptism

washes away the stains of Adam's original sin -- unites person with RCC

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Holy Eucharist

Heart of the Mass worship service

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transubstantiation

at the priests words, the elements actually become the body and blood of Christ

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Penance/Confession

the priest privately listens to a person confessing sins which are then forgiven -- the forgiven sinner is assigned some prayers to say or works to be done as penance

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Confirmation

faith publicly affirmed, Holy Spirit received

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Holy Orders

"ordination" -- priests are sanctioned for their works by a bishop

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Extreme Unction

"Last Rites" given by a priest to someone near death for forgiveness of sins

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Saints

in the RCC, some may have become canonized...

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Relic

may be defined as a religious object associated with a religious leader, or the body part of such

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570-632

Life of Muhammad

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622

The Hegira (Hijra) – year 1 of the Islamic calendar

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632-661

Beginning of the division leading to Sunni & Shiah Muslim sects

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How many Muslims are there worldwide?

roughly 1 billion (4x the population of the US)

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Isalm means...

"submission"

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The Birth of Islam

geographically located in the Arabian Peninsula

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Islam is NOT:

a united, monolithic entity

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10/40 window

where large Muslim communities are

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since the death of Muhammad...

the traditions of the Hadith, the Sunnah, & the Shariah have emerged to guide the community

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Hadith

report(s) of the words & deeds of Muhammad and other early Muslims

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the body of authentic hadith reports...

considered to embody the Sunnah (custom/example) of the Prophet Muhammad

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Sunnah (Sunna)

established custom typically based on Muhammad's example

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Shariah

ideal Islamic law

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Islam's split began with:

disagreement over Muhammad’s successor – Sunnis upheld the principle that the caliph (leader) owed his position to the consent of the Islamic community – Shiites believed only Muhammad’s descendants/kinsmen could lead

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Sunni

Majority part of Islam

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Shiah (Shiites)

identified with Muhammad’s cousin/son-in-law Ali (4th Caliph) – saw Ali as possessing a spiritual endowment directly from Muhammad

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Kabba

Shrine in Mecca

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Muhammad was involved in:

caravan trade

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Muhammad obtains:

enough capital to become independently wealthy

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According to Islamic tradition...

Muhammad had a vision of the Angel Gabriel, during which hehears a voice telling him he is the “Messenger of God”

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Muhammad travels:

the journey known as the Hegira (or Hijra). This becomes the starting year for the Muslim calendar

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March on Mecca:

Muhammad destroys the pagan idols in the Kabba and rededicates the shrine to Islam

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Abu Bakr

the first caliph---essentially launches wars that will dramatically expand the Islamic world

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Caliph (successor)

leader of the Muslim community

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