Unfinished Nation - Chapters 1-19 Review

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Atlantic World

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APUSH final exam overview of ch 1-19

413 Terms

1

Atlantic World

the area and countries surrounding the Atlantic Ocean and the trade, relationship, and other contact between them in the Atlantic region

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2

Bartolomé de Las Casas

Spanish conquistador who was also a priest/friar, saw the native people in Hispaniola as "little lambs" and kind and impressionable people. While he wanted to treat them with kindness, he infantilized them more than respected them

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3

Cahokia

a trading center for furs and fish near what is now St. Louis, thriving Native American populations dwelled there with prosperous networks of life and trade

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4

charter

an agreement or contract from a European power to send men and resources to colonize or settle in the "New World"

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5

Christopher Columbus

born in Genoa, Italy, explored and set forward to find a faster route to East Asia and instead found, started trade, and exploited Indigenous people in the West Indies

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6

Clovis people

ancient migrants who came from the ice bridge to America through Russia/Alaska and settled in various areas of the continent(s)

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7

colonization

one country taking a new land/people by force and setting up new settlements and land

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8

colony

a group of people from a foreign place still governed by their home country's rulers

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9

conquistador

Spanish conquerors who explored much of America and exploited native people

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10

Elizabeth I

Queen of England, Queen Mary's half sister, severed England from Catholic Church permanently

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11

encomienda

exploitation of labor and land from native people by the Spanish colonists

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12

globalization

the increased production, communication, and relationships created and kept between foreign countries and powers

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13

imperialism

using power over colonization, military force, economic wealth, and population to grow country

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14

mercantilism

the use of trade as economic power and growth (often fighting for land and industrial gains between large European nations)

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15

Mesoamerica

region of central/south America

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16

mestizo

people of both Spanish and Indigenous race

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17

Popé

Native American religious leader who led a revolution against the Spanish in Pueblo Revolt, against the Catholic church and the treatment of the Spanish colonizers

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18

Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther lead a new religion breaking off from Catholicism, created a schism of several Protestant churches

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19

Puritans

Christians who wanted to purify the Church of England, claimed they had "pure" values and could live their intended lives under god's will

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20

Separatists

those who completely separated from the Catholic Church in England, some were Protestant, Puritans, often left for the colonies seeking religious freedom

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21

Roanoke

colony that disappeared, left colonists in dismay and hard weather as resources and population dwindled

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22

Anne Hutchinson

outspoken socialite in Massachusetts, challenged religious beliefs and teachings of Christian Separatists in the area, kicked out of the colony for her views and questioning

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23

Antinomianism

belief that one can go against the laws of ruling society to not obey the law of either God or man, most notably promoted in the colonies by Anne Hutchinson

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24

Bacon's Rebellion

Nathaniel Bacon lead a group of disgruntled white, Black, and Native American workers to fight when needed for territorial issues, against the will of William Berkeley

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25

Cecilius Calvert

the second Lord Baltimore, carried out the wishes of his father and received a charter to settle the colony now called Maryland

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26

Dominion of New England

a single government with a higher governor and authoritative power in order for England to establish its dominance over the colonies in the late 1600s-1700s, ordered by King James II

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27

George Calvert

first Lord Baltimore who wanted to establish Maryland colony, intended as a real estate expansion and refuge for English Catholics, died before he could receive a charter

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28

headright system

each settler is granted a set amount of land upon arrival, used to entice larger populations of settlers to move and establish a colony

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29

indentured servants

people owing a debt or payment of service to another man, is contracted to work for them for a set amount of time before being free of contract

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30

Jacob Leisler

among New York's tensions, he was a leader of dissidents and raised a militia to capture a city fort and proclaim himself head of government in New York, lasted for two years

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31

James Oglethorpe

general who was essential to settling Georgia (final colony), used his military background for strategy in defense and setting up land with poorer "farmer-soldiers"

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32

Jamestown

Early colonial town in Virginia along the "James" river, set up by English settlers and survived brutally harsh winters with dwindling resources and population of colonists

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33

John Smith

Captain of the ship that explored and settled Jamestown in Virginia colony, made tentative peace with the Powhatan tribes in the area and gained resources as well as knowledge from them

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34

John Rolfe

settler in Jamestown, helped run operations and started successfully farming tobacco in Virginia, married Pocahontas and converted her to Christianity

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35

John Winthrop

selected leader of the Massachusetts Bay Company

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36

King Philip's War

brutal war between white settlers (mainly Puritans) in Massachusetts and the Wampanoag tribe, instigated by Metacom (aka Philip) and made worse by the settlers

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37

Massachusetts Bay Company

chartered by James I to start their own settlement in the area of Massachusetts/New Hampshire, established their colony of Puritan settlers and were under their own charter which meant they were "responsible to no company officials in England"

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38

Mayflower Compact

first independent form of government in the colony, created on the Mayflower voyage by the pilgrims, gave freedom and laws to act on their own in "new world"

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39

Metacom

called Philip by the Puritans, son of Wampanoag tribe chief Massasoit, broke the tentative peace created by his father due to unfair and harsh treatment of his people

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40

middle grounds

areas with less strong or stable settlements, often the center of diverse groups, countries, and environments all together, includes areas such as the Chesapeake, Caribbean islands, etc.

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41

Navigation Acts

laws to control imports and exports of goods from the colonies, they could only go through England, had to be taxed under English law, and were part of British empire (not heavily enforced by England for decades)

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42

Pequot War

fighting between English settlers in the Connecticut Valley and Pequot Indians, the settlers ended up wiping out most if not all of the tribes in the area

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43

Plymouth Plantation

settlement in Massachusetts where pilgrims first arrived, small and poor Puritan plantation mostly relying on fish and fur trade in the area

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44

Powhatan

Native Americans in the Virginia region, interacted and traded with John Smith and his settlers in early Jamestown

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45

Quakers

religious group, also known as "Friends," who believed that everyone could attain salvation and had divinity within them, confirmed pacifists (while some did own slaves)

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46

Roger Williams

man who founded Rhode Island colony for religious freedom, became home of many Quakers as well, and was controversial for his outspoken religious tolerance

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47

slave codes

rules set in place by English leaders in the colonies/middle grounds that state any slave is property of the white master. Masters would receive no punishment for the poor treatment, abuse, or death/murder of slaves, also said that children of slaves would be enslaved too

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48

theocracy

a government directly tied with a religion, all rulings, policies, and the way it affects people are tied into the religion and the beliefs of how the people ruling interpret the religion

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49

Virginia House of Burgesses

Virginia company's delegates that met and ran the colony, meetings under to house of burgesses which became first elected legislature in what would become the United States

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50

William Berkeley

governor of Virginia for over 30 years, grew and expanded Virginia colony

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51

William Penn

received a charter from King James II, used it to found large settlement named Pennsylvania, was a Quaker who wanted to start a prosperous colony while also being religiously tolerant of all Christians and to native tribes

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52

Cotton Mather

Puritan theologian who started popularization of inoculation (vaccination for smallpox), solidifying it as a common medical procedure in America by the 1750s

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53

covenant

a Puritan belief that an individual's relationship with God and with others rested on mutual respect, duty, and consent

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54

Englightenment

an intellectual movement that stressed the importance of science and reason in the pursuit of truth

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55

evangelist

a devout person who aims to convert others to the faith through preaching and missionary work

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56

Great Awakening

the first major American religious revival, begun in earnest in the 1730s

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57

Harvard

the first college founded in America (1636)

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58

humoralism

argued that the human body was governed by four "humors," yellow biles, black bile, blood, adn phlegm. If one is more than the other and unbalanced, you need to release the excess fluids or humors, often used as justification for bloodletting or purging

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59

indentured servants

temporary servitude, where usually young white men bound themselves to masters for a certain amount of years (usually 4-5) in exchange for housing, clothing, food, and passage to the colonies. however, many weren't provided with these necessities and suffered

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60

jeremiad

sermons of despair in Puritan churches where priests preached ominous sign of waning piety and religious strength

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61

John Peter Zenger

New York publisher who published a print criticizing the government, and didn't end up facing persecution for it, started the precedent of more freedom for the press

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62

Jonathan Edwards

a popular preacher from the Great Awakening, he spread word of God, attracting people to the ideas of the Puritan religion

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63

middle passage

long transatlantic journey to the Americas, between west Africa and southern colonies or Caribbean, enslaved people in horrible conditions during the journey and afterwards

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64

Salem Witchcraft Trials

time period during the 1680s-1690s where mass "hysteria" around witches and witchcraft in mainly Puritan communities was rampant. Many were accused of witchcraft and condemned to publicly hang or be executed in other tortuous ways, and notably most who were accused and executed were widowed or unmarried women

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65

Scotch-Irish

Scotch Presbyterians who settled in northern Ireland, many eventually immigrating to the British colonies

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66

Stono Rebellion

100 slaves banded together, seized weapons, killed several white people, and tried to escape south to Florida, however most were caught and executed

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67

triangular trade

the trading paths between the colonies, Caribbean, England, and West Africa across the Atlantic, shipping and bartering raw materials, processed goods, crops, and slaves

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68

Albany Plan

a treaty drawn up between the Iroquois Native Americans and delegates from the New England and middle colonies during the French and Indian war, nobody approved it

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69

Benjamin Franklin

man who made scientific discoveries surrounding electricity and lightning, brought up issues of the Stamp Act with Parliament, Son of Liberty, negotiated with the French to gain much-need allies during the Revolutionary war

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70

Boston Massacre

dockworkers (aka liberty boys) started pelting sentries at the customs house, eventually leading to soldiers firing and killing five people in the crowd that gathered. Many details are murky and propaganda spread in exaggerating the event, leading to more tensions

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71

Coercive Acts

aka "Intolerable Acts," following the Boston Tea Party they established four acts of closing the port of Boston, stripping powers of self-government in Massachusetts, permitting royal officers in America to be tried for crimes in other colonies or GB, and colonists forced to quarter troops, made MA a martyr situation and sparked resistance

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72

committees of correspondence

a loose intercolonial network of political organizations used to keep dissent spreading through the 1770s, publicized grievances against Britain

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73

Creole

person of European ancestry born in the Americas

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74

Daughters of Liberty

a women's organization who led the Tea Act boycott, sentiment and words of "rather than Freedom, we'll part with our Tea."

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75

First Continental Congress

delegates from all colonies except Georgia met in 1774, creating five major decisions amidst the outrage of GBs actions in the colonies

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76

Fort Necessity

a crude stockade built by George Washington and his men while in conflict with a French patrol on the way to Fort Duquesne, Washington surrendered, first conflict in the French and Indian war

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77

French and Indian War

war from late 1750s to early 1760s, between the english and the french who were allied with the Iroquois tribe

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78

George Grenville

prime minister appointed by George III in 1763, also imposed heavy restrictions and taxes on colonies to pay for cost of defending and administering the empire

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79

George III

king of england from 1760-1820, lead the english in the american revolution, imposed heavy taxes and other legislative acts on the colonies which led to tensions, tried to establish a more absolute monarchy which backfired and created instability

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80

impressment

British commanders forcibly enlisted colonists into the army (like a draft)

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81

Iroquois Confederacy

five Native American indian nations who formed a powerful alliance to protect from threats to themselves and their tribes (comprised of the Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, nad Oneida tribes)

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82

Patrick Henry

planter and lawyer who made a speech to the House in 1765, called for Americans to have same rights as the British and spread the discontent of taxation without representation

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83

Paxton Boys

a band of Pennsylvania frontiersmen who massacred Conestoga Native Americans in 1763-1764, pushback from the proclamation of 1763

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84

Pontiac

chief who led a coalition of Native Americans to plan a united rebellion against British rule in the Ohio valley, continued to contest British control for decades to come

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85

Proclamation of 1763

British declaration which forbade settlers to advance beyond the Appalachian mountains, tried to ease tensions between Native Americans and the english

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86

Seven Years' War

two years into the conflict caused by the French and Indian war, its conflict expanded into Europe and other regions where it was renamed, British eventually won and gained power in the colonies due to their victory

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87

Sons of Liberty

organized group of men who had forward thinking ideas and clandestine meetings, many key figures in the Revolutionary war were a part of this group

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88

sovereignty

the authority to govern, many colonists had an issue with this and how they were governed, as British's governance in practice was heavily unpopular and rebelled against

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89

Stamp Act

new tax applying to all the colonies, taxed every printed document including newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, deeds, wills, licenses, etc, set precedent of Britain raising revenue from the colonies without the consent of the colonial assemblies

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90

Sugar Act

a series of tariffs and rules strictly enforced on imports and exports from the colonies, including sugar, molasses, timber, and iron

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91

Tea Act

passed by Britain in 1773, game Britain's East India Company right to export merchandise directly to colonies without paying any of the regular taxes that were imposed on colonial importers, lead to extremely upset colonists who responded by boycotting tea

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92

Townshend Duties

taxes imposed by Charles Townshend, taxed on various goods imported to the colonies from GB including lead, paint, paper, and tea in an attempt to calm colonial tensions and balance the dissent from the Quartering act. this backfired and faced extreme rejection

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93

Virginia Resolves

Patrick Henry's resolutions on unjust taxation without representation by Britain

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94

virtual representation

theory that every person part of the British empire was represented as a person under the crown's rule rather than a demographic, meaning the colonies, Ireland, and parts of London weren't literally represented in Parliament and had little to no voice in those matters

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95

William Pitt

British secretary of state (future prime minister) brought the seven year's war fully under British control, planned military strategy, appointed commanders, and issued orders to the colonists (imposed impressment)

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96

Abigail Adams

John Adams wife, pushed him to include the ideas of women and women's rights in the new constitution and foundations being created in the colonies

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97

Articles of Confederation

Congress's original plans for a union, trying to build a strong federal government but had issues as the states were weak under a decentralized system

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98

Battle of Fallen Timbers

battle between Miami Native Americans and US forces led by General Anthony Wayne, US defeated the Miami and forced them off their lands, as well as coercing them to sign treaties ceding their lands

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99

Benedict Arnold

General for the rebels, seized Fort Ticonderoga to threaten takeover north towards Quebec, fought in North/New England colonies

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100

Common Sense by Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine's pamphlet that encouraged people to use "common sense" and to seek complete independence from Britain, citing the fact that GB was overextending it's reach

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