# APES Math Formulas

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what is population density?

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## Description and Tags

all ap environmental science math formulas

### 13 Terms

1

what is population density?

population / area

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2

what is the rule of 70?

70 / growth rate %

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3

what is population growth rate (%)?

[(births - deaths) / (immigrants - emigrants)] x 100

denominator can also just be “# of people”

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4

what is rate of change?

(new- old) / new time - old time [basically just AROC]

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5

what is percent change?

[(old - new) / old] x 100

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6

what is the 10% rule?

states that only 10% of energy moves up the trophic level

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7

what is net primary productivity (NPP)?

gross primary productivity - respiration

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8

what is gross primary productivity (GPP)?

rate of photosynthesis by plants

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9

what is fuel efficiency?

distance traveled / unit of fuel consumed

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10

what is dimensional analysis?

quantity1 * conversion factor/quantity2 = result

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11

what is half life?

A = Pert or t1/2 = ln(2)/x

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12

what is LD50?

Dose/Weight

the bigger the dose, the safer the chemical

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13

what is lethal dose?

mass x LD50

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