Pre-Ap World History Finals Review

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260 Terms
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history

the study of past events starting in the fourth millennium

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prehistory

the time before written history

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Bipedalism

the preference for walking on two limbs rather than four

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primary source

original evidence from the time period

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Paleolithic Age

Old Stone Age

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foraging

searching for food and other resources

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homo spaiens

present day humans

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Neanderthals

a people first found in the Neander Valley in southwest Germany

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neolithic revolution

the changeover from food gathering to food producing that serves as a major marker event

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agriculture

the deliberate tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber

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horticulture

using only hand

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pastoralism

the domestication of plants and animals in a semi

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domestication of animals

to train animals to stay put and not wander

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surplus

having more than needed

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polytheism

belief in multiple gods

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metallurgy

the science of working with metals

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textiles

the combining of fibers in order to make clothing and other fabrics

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Catal Huyuk

an ancient city in modern day southern Turkey

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civilization

a social organization in which made improvements to society including gaining access to water

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social hierarchy

the organization of society in arrangement of individuals based on power and wealth

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cultural hearths

the areas where civilization first began to radiate ideas, innovations, and ideologies that culturally transformed the world

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Mesopotamia

the "land between the rivers" (Tigris and Euphrates) in southwest Asia

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Semetic languages

the precursor to both modern Hebrew and Arabic

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Sumerians

a non

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city

state/polis

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Sargon the Great

the leader of a semetic group that founded the Akkadian Empire

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Akkadian Empire

An empire founded by Sargon the Great

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Fertile Crescent

The land from Mesopotamia to Egypt

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theocracy

society governed by gods or priests

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Hittitites

a group that originated in Anatolia that formed a large empire in northwestern Mesopotamia

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Assyrians

An ancient Mesopotamian society that formed in the 900s B.C.E.

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New Babylonians

An ancient Mesopotamian society that formed in the 500s B.C.E.

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Hammurabi's code

an inscription on a blackstone pillar that gave judges many examples of punishments for crimes; a strict law code with harsh punishments

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cuneiform

a "wedge

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the Epic of Gligamesh

A famous story that has been orally passed down since at least the seventh millennia; version of Noah's Arc

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ziggurats

large, multiple story pyramids constructed by bricks and approach by ramps and stairs; a home of the gods/place to worship the gods; Mesopotamian

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Nile River

an ancient river that runs through Egypt and is home to many cultural hearths

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cataracts

areas where water was too swift and rocky for boats to pass

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Hyksos

a people who came from the north to conquer the Nile Delta

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pharaoh

an ancient Egyptian ruler

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Old Kingdom

the time when the pharaoh had the most power in Egypt

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Middle Kingdom

The era when the Hyksos invaded Egypt

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New Kingdom

When the Hyksos were defeated by princes from Thebes

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social mobility

the ability of individuals to change social status

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patriarchy

a system of society where the eldest male is the head of the family

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Hatshepsut

A female pharaoh who ruled from 1473 to 1458 B.C.E.

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papyrus

An Egyptian writing material made of pressed plants

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Amon

Re/Ra

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Isis

Egyptian goddess of fertility and the Nile

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Osiris

The Egyptian ruler of the afterlife

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Horus

the son of Osiris and Isis who was represented by pharaohs

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The Book of the Dead

A papyrus text that contained Ancient Egyptian rituals from the New Kingdom; Egyptian

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Mohenjo

Daro

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Dravidian

An ancient language believed to be spoken in the Indus Valley that is similar to southern Indian languages

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Aryans

northwestern invaders who poke Indo

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monsoon rains

storms created by seasonal winds that blow from seas towards the Indian subcontinent

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Harappa

An ancient Egyptian city made of a huge complex of towns and villages

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Rosetta Stone

A tablet with a relatively long script in three languages (formal hieroglyphics, informal hieroglyphics, and Greek)

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systems failure

a break down of the political, social, and economical structures of the Indus Valley cities

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Xia

an ancient Chinese dynasty that most likely did not exist

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Shang

the first known Chinese dynasty

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tribute

payment that is usually in the form of produce

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Zhou Dynasty

the longest

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oracle bones

specially prepared broad bones or turtle shells inscribed with questions

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Confucianism

an ancient Chinese philosophy created by Confucius

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The Analects

a collection of Confucian works

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The book of songs

a collection of early developed Chinese poetry

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divination

the practice of seeking knowledge of the future or unknown by supernatural means

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Eastern Hemisphere

The hemisphere east of the Prime Meridian.

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Western Hemisphere

The hemisphere west of the Prime Meridian.

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Olmec

an early American civilization that expanded out from the coastline of the gulf of Mexico

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Chavin

an early American civilization that settled between the coastlines of the Andes River Valley

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nomadic

moving from place to place constantly

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market events

important dates in history; turning points that changed the course of history

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cultural diffusion

the spread of cultures, religions, and ideas

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perspective

the way someone percieves things

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Sumer

tribes with 1 common language a religion; first to settle in Mesopotamia

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Anthropomorphic

attributing human characteristics or qualities to objects, animals, or gods; Sumerian

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Scribes

people employed at Sumerian temples and palaces to record literature, financial transactions, and legal documents

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maritime trade

sea trade; Pheonician

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torah

Hebrew Bible

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Abraham

Founder of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

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Nile Delta

a rich area of alluvial soil in Egypt

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Black Land

The rich soil around the Nile

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Red Land

The desert around the Nile

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the ka

the life force or spiritual double of the person; Egyptian

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vizier

Chief advisor to the pharaoh/the exclusive head of the Egyptian bureaucracy;Head of government directed by the caliph under the Abbasid caliphate(Islamic)

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ba

a human

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akh

the spirit of Re; the transfigured spirit of a person that becomes one with light after death

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Akhenaton

an Egyptian pharaoh who tried to force his people to become monotheistic and caused major political and social problems; husband of Nefertiti

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Nefertiti

Wife of Akhenaton

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King Tut (Tutenkhamun)

the only pharaoh with a tomb still intact, which gave archaeologists and historians an insight into Egyptian traditions and ways of life

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Ramses Ⅱ

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royal overseers

ensured that the 42 district governors carried out the pharaoh's orders.

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hieratic/demotic script

a simplified version of Egyptian writing

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CleopatraⅦ

the last pharaoh of Egypt who committed suicide instead of surrender to the Romans

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monogamy

having more than one wife

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monarchy

hereditary rule by one

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caste

social classes of hereditary status; India

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jati

subgroups of families within a caste

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