BIOL 1584 - Exam 1

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Atom

1 / 118

Tags and Description

Biology

Cells

UARK biology 1584 class with Faith Lessner

119 Terms

1

Atom

the smallest functional units of matter that form all chemical substances

New cards
2

Carbon

the building block of all living matter

New cards
3

Molecule

two or more atoms bonded together

New cards
4

Compound

any molecule composed of two or more elements

New cards
5

Macromolecule

large, complex organic molecules

New cards
6

Covalent bond

electrons are shared to fill valence (outer) shells in single, double, or triple bonds; very strong

New cards
7

Ionic bond

electrons are transferred, forming ions that are attracted to each other; intermediate strength

New cards
8

Hydrogen bond

hydrogen atom from one polar molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom from another molecule; weakest bond

New cards
9

Chemical reaction

when one or more substances are changed into other substances

New cards
10

Condensation reaction

two molecules are combined to form a single molecule usually with the loss of a small molecule such as water

New cards
11

Hydrolysis reaction

involves adding water to one large molecule to break it into multiple smaller molecules.

New cards
12

Taxonomy

the grouping of species based on common ancestry

New cards
13

Prokaryotes

small, simple cells that lack sub-cellular organelles like chloroplasts, mitochondria or nuclei; typically unicellular

New cards
14

Eukaryotes

more complex; uni- and multicellular; have organelles such as mitochondria, nuclei, chloroplasts; typically larger cells

New cards
15

Cell theory

all living organisms are composed of one or more cells; cells are the smallest units of life; new cells only come from pre-existing cells by cell division

New cards
16

Domain bacteria

mostly unicellular prokaryotes that inhabit many diverse (some extreme) environments on Earth

New cards
17

Cytoplasm

everything contained within the plasma membrane (cytosol, endomembrane system, mitochondria, etc)

New cards
18

Nucleoid region

where DNA is located

New cards
19

Cell wall

provides support and protection

New cards
20

Glycocalyx

traps water, gives protection, helps evade immune system

New cards
21

Domain archaea

unicellular prokaryotes that often live in extreme environments

New cards
22

Plasma membrane

Boundary between the cell and the extracellular environment

New cards
23

Ecology

the study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environments

New cards
24

Organismal ecology

the study of the ways in which individual organisms meet challenges of their environments

New cards
25

Behavioral Ecology

how individual behavior contributes to reproductive success and survival

New cards
26

Physiological Ecology

physiological changes that allow organisms to adapt to their environment and how the environment impacts the distribution of species

New cards
27

Conditioning

when response to a stimulus can be modified by learning

New cards
28

Non-associative learning

learning without an association to positive or negative reinforcement

New cards
29

Associative learning

behavior is changed through a positive or negative association between a stimulus and response

New cards
30

Cognitive learning

learning/solving problems that require conscious thought (frequently involves perception, analysis, judgment and senses; also may involve memory and decision-making)

New cards
31

Classical conditioning

involuntary response is associated with a neutral stimulus that did not originally elicit the response

New cards
32

Operant Conditioning

Voluntary response is reinforced by a consequence (reward or punishment)

New cards
33

Migration

long-range seasonal movement linked to temperature, food availability, and suitable breeding grounds

New cards
34

Habituation

a form of non-associative learning in which an innate response to a stimulus decreases after repeated or prolonged presentations of that stimulus

New cards
35

Critical period

a limited time during development when learning can be coupled with innate behavior

New cards
36

Optimal Foraging Theory

idea that animals will do cost/benefit analysis in finding a food source; needs to be advantageous to the individual

New cards
37

Population

group of interbreeding individuals (or species) living in the same geographic area at a given time

New cards
38

Population density

number of organisms in a given area

New cards
39

Dispersion

the spacing of a population in a given area

New cards
40

Semelparity

produces all offspring in a single reproductive event; reproduce 1x then die

New cards
41

Iteroparity

repeated reproduction at intervals throughout the life cycle (seasonal/continuous)

New cards
42

Density-dependent factors

factors that will affect mortality in a population because of the population's density

New cards
43

Density-independent factor

factors that will affect mortality in a population independent of the population's density

New cards
44

Community

the assemblage of populations of different species that live in the same place at the same time

New cards
45

Species richness

the number of species in a community

New cards
46

Succession

the gradual and continuous change in species composition and community structure following a disturbance; the species changing and species richness over time

New cards
47

Primary succession

newly exposed site is colonized by living things for the first time; when new land is formed or bare rock exposed (volcano/glacier retreat; no soil present)

New cards
48

Secondary succession

site where organisms used to live, was disturbed, and now recolonized; soil and nutrients still present (result of fire, tornado, flood, etc)

New cards
49

Ecosystem ecology

studies the movement of energy and materials through organisms and their communities

New cards
50

Heterotrophs

get organics from their environment

New cards
51

Chemical element

Each specific type of atom is a _______

New cards
52

Proton information

  • Subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom.

  • Have a positive charge of +1.

  • The number in the atom determines its atomic number.

New cards
53

Neutron information

  • Subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom.

  • They have a mass of approximately 1 atomic mass unit (AMU) and no electrical charge.

  • The number in the atom can vary, resulting in different isotopes of an element.

New cards
54

Electron information

  • Subatomic particle with a negative charge

  • Found in the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus

  • Determines the chemical properties and reactivity of an atom

  • Involved in the formation of chemical bonds

New cards
55

makes up about 95% of the atoms in living organisms

Hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon

New cards
56

What percent of atoms in living organisms do mineral elements make up

less than 1%

New cards
57

what percent of atoms in living organisms do trace elements make up

Less than 0.01%

New cards
58

Biologically important functional groups that bind to carbon

amino acids

carboxyl

hydroxyl

phosphate

New cards
59

Properties of chemical reactions

Breaks/forms bonds

Requires a source of energy

In living organisms, they often require an enzyme as catalyst

Tend to proceed in a particular direction but will eventually reach equilibrium

Occur in liquid (water)

New cards
60

Organic molecules

Molecules that contain carbon

New cards
61

Examples of macromolecules

Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids

New cards
62

What is in the carboxyl group

amino acids and fatty acids

New cards
63

What is in the hydroxyl group

steroids, alcohol, carbohydrates, and some amino acids

New cards
64

What is in the phosphate group

Nucleic acids, ATP, and phospholipids

New cards
65

Principles/characteristics of living things:

Reproduce

Evolve/adapt

Maintain homeostasis

Made of cells

Need energy

Grow/develop

Have genetic material

New cards
66

Levels of biological organization:

Atoms

Molecules/macromolecules

Cells

Tissues

Organs

Organism

Population

Community

Ecosystem

Biosphere

New cards
67

Binomial nomenclature

the specific name for each species

New cards
68

Organisms are classified based on

domain, genus, then species

New cards
69

Features all cells have:

Phospholipid bilayer

cytoplasm

genetic material

ribosomes

New cards
70

Three domains of life

bacteria

archaea

eukarya

New cards
71

Types of prokaryotes

Bacteria and archaea

New cards
72

Characteristics of prokaryotes

simple cell structure with no nucleus or subcellular organelles

mostly unicellular

occur as single cells, pairs, or filaments

New cards
73

Shapes of bacteria

Spheres (coccus/cocci)

Rods (bacillus/ bacilli)

Comma-shaped (vibrio/vibrios)

Spiral-shaped flexible (spirochete/spirochetes)

Spiral-shaped rigid (spirillum/spirilla)

New cards
74

Characteristics of eukaryotes

DNA is housed inside a membrane-bound nucleus

compartmentalized functions

organelles each have their own unique structure and function

lots of variety between cell types and species

New cards
75

Plasma membrane functions

Membrane transport in and out of cell with selective permeability

Cell adhesion

Cell signaling using receptors

New cards
76

Bacterial cell structure

Cytoplasm, nucleoid region, and ribosomes are inside the plasma membrane

cell wall, glycocalyx, and appendages are outside the plasma membrane

New cards
77

Ribosomes

responsible for making/synthesizing proteins

New cards
78

DNA

responsible for storage, transmission, and expression of genetic material

New cards
79

as cells get larger, the ______________ gets smaller, affecting cell function

surface area-to-volume ratio; important to bring in nutrients, remove wastes, and transport

New cards
80

Chloroplasts

Use photosynthesis

Found in nearly all species of plants and algae

Have an outer and inner membrane

New cards
81

Mitochondrion

Have outer and inner membranes

Intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix

New cards
82

Evidence of endosymbiosis

Mitochondria and chloroplasts

Grow and self-replicate by binary fission

Have their own circular DNA (like bacteria)

Have two membranes

New cards
83

Cell morphology

Size and shape of eukaryotic cells show great variation

Even cells that share the same genome can have very different morphologies

New cards
84

Mitochondria derived from

proteobacteria (purple bacteria)

New cards
85

Chloroplasts derived from

cyanobacteria (photosynthetic blue-green bacteria)

New cards
86

Similarities between domain archaea and eukaryotes

histone proteins

ribosomal proteins

RNA polymerases

New cards
87

Archaea are the only organisms that can make

methane

New cards
88

Extremophiles

a microorganism that thrives in extreme conditions

New cards
89

Thermophile

Thrives in heat

New cards
90

Psychrophile

Thrives in cold

New cards
91

Halophile

Thrives in high salinity

New cards
92

Acidophile

Thrives in high acidity

New cards
93

Multicellular organisms must have:

cell communication between cells

cells attached to each other

some sort of cellular specialization

New cards
94

What has an essential role in producing organic carbon and fixing nitrogen

cyanobacteria

New cards
95

Cyanobacteria

photosynthetic bacteria abundant in fresh water, oceans, wetlands, and on surfaces of arid soils

New cards
96

Types of behavior

innate - instinctual and genetically-programmed

learned - behavior based on previous experience

cognition - requires conscious thought/senses/judgement

New cards
97

Fixed action patterns

will continue to completion once initiated due to the sign stimulus

New cards
98

Types of migration

Piloting - animal moves from one familiar landmark to the next

orientation - ability to follow compass bearing and travel in a straight line

navigation - follow compass bearings but can also set or adjust path

New cards
99

Types of traps

pitfall

mist net

live trap

quadrat

New cards
100

How to determine population density

Count individuals or count smaller groups, average, and extrapolate to larger

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3423 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(25)
note Note
studied byStudied by 54 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 110 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5121 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(41)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard35 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard49 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 178 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard33 terms
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard53 terms
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 1285 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard48 terms
studied byStudied by 141 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(7)