Skeletal system

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Clavicles

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1

Clavicles

The two flat bones attaches to the sternum on their anterior side and to the shoulder blades

Xương đòn

<p>The two flat bones attaches to the sternum on their anterior side and to the shoulder blades</p><p>Xương đòn</p>
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Scapulae

A pair of large, triangular bones located at the back of the thorax

Xương vai

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Sternoclavicular joint

Xương ức - đòn

<p>Xương ức - đòn</p>
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Humerus

Upper arm bone

<p>Upper arm bone</p>
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Ulna

The lower arm bone located on the little finger side of the humerus

<p>The lower arm bone located on the little finger side of the humerus</p>
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Radius

The lower arm bone located on the thumb side

<p>The lower arm bone located on the thumb side</p>
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Phalanges

Bone of the fingers

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Metacarpals

Bones of the palm

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Carpals

Bones of the wrist

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Two

How many phalanges are there in the thumb?

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Three

How many phalanges are there in other fingers?

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  • Distal

  • Middle

  • Proximal

What are the 3 types of phalanges?

<p>What are the 3 types of phalanges?</p>
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Trapezium

The carpal at the base of the thumb

Xương thang

<p>The carpal at the base of the thumb</p><p>Xương thang</p>
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  • Ilium (xương chậu)

  • Ischium (xương ụ)

  • Pubis (xương mu)

Which three pairs of bones fuse to form the pelvic girdle (đai chậu)?

<p>Which three pairs of bones fuse to form the <strong>pelvic girdle (đai chậu)</strong>?</p>
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  • The axial skeleton (head, torso)

  • The appendicular skeleton (upper and lower extremities)

What parts is the skeleton divided into?

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Cranium

The brain case

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8 bones

How many bones form the cranium?

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14 bones

How many bones make up the face?

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Ossicles

Tiny bones in the inner ears

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Mandible

Jaw bone (only movable bone in the skull)

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Suture

Immobile joints that hold the skull bones together

<p>Immobile joints that hold the skull bones together</p>
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Coronal suture

Which suture unites the frontal bone and the two parietal bones?

<p>Which suture unites the frontal bone and the two parietal bones?</p>
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Squamous suture

Which suture connects the parietal bones with the temporal bones?

<p>Which suture connects the parietal bones with the temporal bones?</p>
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Lambdoid suture

Which suture connects the parietal bones to the occipital bone?

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Anterior/posterior fontanel

A diamond-shaped area when the suture isn’t closed in infants

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Sinuses

Air-filled spaces within the skull that lessen the bone weight, moisten incoming air and act as a resonating chambers for the voice

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Foramen magnum

A large opening at the base of the occipital bone allows the spinal cord to pass from the encephalon into the spine

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Orbit

Eye sockets

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Sphenoid bone

A bone located in the cranial floor looks like a bat

An anchor for the frontal, parietal, occipital and ethmoid bones

<p>A bone located in the cranial floor looks like a bat</p><p>An anchor for the frontal, parietal, occipital and ethmoid bones</p>
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Maxillary bones

Facial bones that form the upper jaw, nose, orbits and roof of the mouth

<p>Facial bones that form the <strong>upper jaw, nose, orbits and roof of the mouth</strong></p>
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Zygomatic (Malar bones)

Cheekbones that attach to chewing muscles

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Nasal bones

Bones that form the upper part of the bridge of the nose

<p>Bones that form the <strong>upper part of the bridge of the nose</strong></p>
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Lacrymal bones

Bones that contain the lacrymal bag

Xương lệ

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Vomer

Bone that is part of the nasal septum

Xương lá mía

<p>Bone that is part of the nasal septum</p><p>Xương lá mía</p>
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Palatine bones

Bones that form the posterior portion of the hard palate, the lateral side of the nasal cavity, and small part of the orbit

Xương vòm miệng

<p>Bones that form the posterior portion of the hard palate, the lateral side of the nasal cavity, and small part of the orbit</p><p>Xương vòm miệng</p>
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Vertebrae

The spinal column contains 24 _________.

Đốt sống

<p>The spinal column contains 24 _________.</p><p>Đốt sống</p>
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Sacrum

A single bone that results from the fusion of 5 vertebrae and attaches to the pelvic girdle

Xương cùng

<p>A single bone that results from the fusion of 5 vertebrae and attaches to the pelvic girdle</p><p>Xương cùng</p>
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Coccyx

The tailbone

Xương cụt

<p>The tailbone</p><p>Xương cụt</p>
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7 cervical vertebrae

Which vertebrae support skull and rotate?

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12 thoracic vertebrae

Which vertebrae attach to the ribs?

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5 lumbar vertebrae

Which vertebrae support the small of the back?

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Sternum

A flat, sword-shaped bone that is attached to the clavicles

Xương ức

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True ribs

Ribs that are directly attached to the sternum by costal cartilage

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False ribs

Five pairs of ribs that aren’t attached directly to the sternum

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Femur

Upper leg bones

<p>Upper leg bones</p>
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Acetabulum

Hip socket

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Tibia (shinbone)

Largest and strongest of the lower leg bones

Articulate with the femur at the proximal end

<p>Largest and strongest of the lower leg bones</p><p>Articulate with the femur at the proximal end</p>
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Fibula

The bone that connects with the tibia its proximal and distal ends

Also articulates with the talus that the distal end

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Patella

The kneecap that protects the knee joint and overlaps the distal end of the femur and the proximal end of the tibia

<p>The kneecap that protects the knee joint and overlaps the distal end of the femur and the proximal end of the tibia</p>
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Lateral malleolus

The bony prominence on the outside of the ankle

<p>The bony prominence on the outside of the ankle</p>
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Astragalus

The talus bone forms part of the ankle joint

<p>The talus bone forms part of the ankle joint</p>
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Calcaneus

The heel (the largest tarsal bone)

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Scaphoid bone (Navicular)

Boat-shape bone

<p>Boat-shape bone</p>
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Cuneiforms

Three wedge-shaped bones that form the arch of the foot

<p>Three wedge-shaped bones that form the arch of the foot</p>
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Metatarsal bones

Five bones that form the foot

Articulate with the tarsal bones and the phalanges

<p>Five bones that form the foot</p><p>Articulate with the tarsal bones and the phalanges</p>
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Phalanges

Fourteen toe bones (3 for each toe, 2 for the great toe)

<p>Fourteen toe bones (3 for each toe, 2 for the great toe)</p>
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Main bones of the limbs (except the patella, wrists, ankles)

What do the long bones include?

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Wrists, ankles

What do the short bones include?

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Sternum, scapulae, cranium

What do the flat bones include?

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Vertebrae, hip bones

What do the irregular bone include?

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Outer layer (dense, smooth compact bone)

Inner layer (Spongy, porous bone)

What are the 2 types of bone material?

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In the shaft of long bones

The outer layer of short, flat and irregular bones

Where is the compact bone found?

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In the central regions of the epiphysis of the long bones

Inner portion of short, flat, and irregular bones

Where is the cancellous bone found?

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Diaphysis (diaphyses)

The long, narrow shaft of the bone

Contain bone marrow

Has 2 irregular ends

<p>The long, narrow shaft of the bone</p><p>Contain bone marrow</p><p>Has 2 irregular ends</p>
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Epiphysis (epiphyses)

The bulbous ends of the long bones

Provide a large surface for muscle attachment and give stability to joints

<p>The bulbous ends of the long bones</p><p>Provide a large surface for muscle attachment and give stability to joints</p>
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Articular cartilage

A thin layer of hyaline cartilage that covers and cushions the joint surface of the epiphyses

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Periosteum

A dense membrane that covers the shafts of the long bones

Contain 2 layers: a fibrous outer layer + a bone-forming inner layer

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Osteoblasts

Bone-producing cells

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Osteoclasts

Bone-destroying cells

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Medullary cavity

A cavity filled with bone marrow

<p>A cavity filled with bone marrow</p>
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Endosteum

A thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity

Contain osteoblasts and osteoclasts

<p>A thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity</p><p>Contain osteoblasts and osteoclasts</p>
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Lamellae

The thin layers of ground substance

A part of the haversian system

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Lacunae

Small hollow spaces that contain osteocytes

Part of the haversian system

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Canaliculi

Small canals

Part of the haversian system

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Haversian canals

Central canals that contain blood, lymph vessels, nerves and sometimes marrow

<p>Central canals that contain blood, lymph vessels, nerves and sometimes marrow</p>
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Volkmann’s canals

Canals that connect haversian canal to another and to the outer bone

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Perform hematopoiesis

What is the role of red bone marrow?

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Cartilage

A dense connective tissue that supports and absorbs shock bones and joints

Supports and shapes the auditory canal and intervertebral disks

Have no blood or nerve supply

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Fibrous cartilage

Which type of cartilage forms at the meniscus and the intervertebral disks?

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Hyaline cartilage

Which type of cartilage covers articular bone surfaces, connects ribs and sternum, appears in the trachea, bronchi and nasal septum?

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Elastic cartilage

Which type of cartilage is located in the auditory canal, external ear and epiglottis?

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Synarthrosis joints

Which type of joints is immovable?

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Amphiathrosis

Which type of joints is slightly movable?

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Diarthrosis

Which type of joint is freely movable?

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Fibrous joints

  • The articular surfaces of the 2 bones are bound closely by fibrous tissue

  • Little movement is possible

  • Example: cranial sutures

What type of joint is this?

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Cartilaginous joints

  • Cartilage connects one bone to another

  • Slight movement is possible

  • Example: symphysis pubis

What type of joint is this?

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Synovial joints

  • Body surfaces are covered by articular cartilage and joined by ligaments lined with synovial membrane

  • Freely movable

  • Example: joints of the arms and legs

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Articular capsule

A saclike envelope, whose outer layer is lined with a vascular synovial membrane

<p>A saclike envelope, whose outer layer is lined with a vascular synovial membrane</p>
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Bursa (bursae)

  • Synovial fluid sacs located at friction points of all types of joints, tendons, ligaments and bones

  • Function: cushion these structures, decrease stress on adjecent one

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Gliding joints

Which type of joints allow adjacent bone surfaces to move against one another?

Ex: wrists and ankles

<p>Which type of joints <strong>allow</strong> <strong>adjacent bone surfaces to move against one another?</strong></p><p>Ex: wrists and ankles</p>
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Hinge joints

Which type of joints permits movement in only one direction?

Ex: elbows and knees

<p>Which type of joints <strong>permits movement in only one direction?</strong></p><p>Ex: elbows and knees</p>
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Pivot joints (rotary joints, trochoid joints)

Which type of joint allows a movable bone to pivot around a stationary bone?

Ex: neck and elbow

<p>Which type of joint <strong>allows a movable bone to pivot around a stationary bone?</strong></p><p>Ex: neck and elbow</p>
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Condylar

  • Knuckle joints

  • Contain an oval head of one bone that fits into a shallow depression in a second bone

  • Example: union between the radius and the carpal bones

<ul><li><p>Knuckle joints</p></li><li><p>Contain an oval head of one bone that fits into a shallow depression in a second bone</p></li><li><p>Example: union between the radius and the carpal bones</p></li></ul>
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Saddle joints

  • Resemble condylar joints but allow greater freedom of movement

  • Example: carpometacarpal joints of the thumb

<ul><li><p>Resemble condylar joints but <strong>allow greater freedom of movement</strong></p></li><li><p>Example: carpometacarpal joints of the thumb</p></li></ul>
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Ball-and-socket joints (spheroid joints)

Which type of joints have the spherical head of one bone fit into a socket of another bone?

Example: hip and shoulder joints

<p>Which type of joints have the spherical head of one bone fit into a socket of another bone?</p><p>Example: hip and shoulder joints</p>
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Crepitus

A cracking noise or the sensation that’s commonly felt when the hand is placed over a fracture site and broken bone ends are moved

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Abduction

Moving away from the midline

<p>Moving away from the midline</p>
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Adduction

Moving toward the midline

<p>Moving toward the midline</p>
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Circumduction

Moving in a circular manner

<p>Moving in a circular manner</p>
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Flexion

Bending or decreasing the joint angle

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