AP PSYCH

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socrates and plato

the mind and body are separate, the mind continues after death, knowledge is innate

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Aristotle

need data, knowledge comes from observation and is not innate

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rene descartes

agreed with the greeks, dissected animals, fluid in brain flows through nerves to muscles causing movement

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francis bacon

founder of modern science, empiricism

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john locke

tabula rasa; the mind is a blank slate at birth on which experience writes

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empiricism

knowledge is the result of experience and that scientific knowledge is developed through observation and experimentation

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wilhelm wundt

established the first psychology lab, wanted to measure the “atoms of the mind”, the fastest mental processes

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edward bradford titchener

introduced structuralism to study the elements of the mind, used introspection

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structuralism

early school focused on identifying the elements of the mind the way early chemists developed the periodic table to classify elements

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introspection

the process of looking inward to directly observe one’s own psychological processes

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charles darwin

natural selection of mental and physical traits, adaptive evolution influenced william james

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william james

introduced functionalism, principles of psychology

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functionalism

assumes a purpose, smelling and thinking must have helped us evolve

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mary whitin calkins

student of william james, denied a phd because she was female, memory researcher, first female president of the apa

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Margaret floy washburn

student of edward titchener, first female to earn psych phd, the animal mind

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behaviorism

approach that focused on observable behaviors, ignoring any underlying cognitive factors. Created by John B. Watson

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freud

developed psychoanalysis and personality theory

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abraham maslow and carl rogers

humans strive to reach their full potential, unconditional love, personal growth

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humanism

“third force” in psychology, the study of potential and personal growth

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cognitive psychology

the study of mental processes; thinking perceiving, learning, remembering, communicating, and solving problems

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cognitive neuroscience

the study of the brain activity linked with cognition

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psychology

the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of humans and other animals, uses empiricism and the scientific method to critically evaluate evidence

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behavior

any observable and measurable action taken by a person or animal

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nature

behaviors and mental processes occur because they are innate

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nurture

behaviors and mental processes occur as a result of experience or the environment

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positive psychology

the scientific study of human flourishing, the goal of discovering and promoting human strengths and virtues, strengthens individuals and communities

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case study

a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studies in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

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strengths in a case study

allow for examination of rare or unusual behavior, provide a large amount of qualitative data, suggests directions for further study

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strengths in a naturalistic observation

subjects behave normally outside of a lab setting, data collection is unobtrusive

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limitations in a naturalistic observation

independent variable cannot be isolated, cannot determine cause and effect, observations by researchers may be subjective

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strengths of the survey method

able to take a “quick pulse” of people beliefs, behaviors or opinions, able to include many cases

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limitations of the survey method

response bias, wording effects can skew the outcome, acquiring a random sample is difficult, can not determine cause and effect

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correlation

a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and how well either factor predicts the other

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positive correlation

two sets of data tend to rise or fall together, measured from r=0.1 to +1.0

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negative correlation

one set rises while the other falls measured from r=-0.1 to -1.0

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random sampling

choosing a representative sample of the population being studied

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random assignment

assigning the participants to the experimental or control group by chance

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independent variable (IV)

the factor in an experiment that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied, given only to the experimental group

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dependent variable (DV)

the outcome that is measured in an experiment; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated, measured in both groups

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confounding variable

a factor other than the factor that is being studied that might influence a study’s results; age, IQ, ethnicity, sex, political beliefs

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experimental validity

the extent to which a test or experiment measures or predicts what it is supposed to

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ethical guidelines safeguard human research participants

informed consent, protection from harm, debriefing, right to withdraw, confidentiality

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descriptive statistics

numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups, includes measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode) and measures of variation (range and standard deviation)

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mean

mathematical average of a set of numbers, add the scores and divide by the number of scores

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median

the middle score in a distribution, arrange scores from highest to lowest with half of the data above and half below the number

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mode

the most frequently occurring data point in a distribution

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the influence of outliers on data and which measure of central tendency is best used to describe the data

the median will be a better descriptor of data when the mean is impacted by outliers

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range

the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

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standard deviation

a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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1 standard deviation from the mean

68%

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2 standard deviations from the mean

95%

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3 standard deviations from the mean

99%

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inferential statistics

examine relationships between variables in sample, allows us to infer/predict trends based on data taken from a sample of a population

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descriptive statistics

describe a population or data set, uses measures of central tendency, uses measures of variation

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statistical significance

statistical statement of how likely it is that a result occurred by chance

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neuron

a nerve cell that is the basic building block of the nervous system

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<p>axon</p>
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<p>axon</p>

axon

attached to the soma, the neuron that passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands

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neural impulse

action potential; electrical signal traveling down the axon

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<p>myelin sheath</p>
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<p>myelin sheath</p>

myelin sheath

the fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons; covers the axon of some neurons and hooks speed neural impulses

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<p>terminal branches of axon</p>
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<p>terminal branches of axon</p>

terminal branches of axon

the ends of the axon containing terminal button which hold synaptic vesicles that store neurotransmitters

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<p>dendrites</p>
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<p>dendrites</p>

dendrites

bushy, branching  extensions that receive messages from other cells, conducting impulses toward the cell body

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<p>cell body/soma</p>
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<p>cell body/soma</p>

cell body/soma

the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus, the cell’s life support center

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deterioration of the myelin sheath can lead to:

motor impairments such as multiple sclerosis

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glial cells

cells that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they also play a role in thinking, learning, and memory

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how is a neural impulse generated

if the combined received chemical signals exceed a minimum threshold, the neuron fires, transmitting an electrical impulse (action potential) down its axon by means of a chemistry-to-electrical process

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threshold

the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse

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what is the outside of an axon’s membrane charged with before the beginning of the action potential?

positivly charged sodium (Na+) ions

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what is the inside of an axon’s membrane charged with before the beginning of the action potential?

negatively charged proteins and a small amount of positively charged potassium (K+) ions

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<p>first step in an action potential</p>
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<p>first step in an action potential</p>

first step in an action potential

the first section of the semipermeable axon opens its gates once the threshold is met, Na+ ions flood through the channels

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<p>why do Na+ ions rush in the channels</p>
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<p>why do Na+ ions rush in the channels</p>

why do Na+ ions rush in the channels

the ions try to balance the charge of the slightly negative membrane, this causes a slight depolarization

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<p>what is the second step in an action potential</p>
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<p>what is the second step in an action potential</p>

what is the second step in an action potential

the depolarization changes the electrical charge of the next part of the axon, gates in this second area now open, which allows even more Na+ ions to flow into the channel

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<p>how do K+ ions move out</p>
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<p>how do K+ ions move out</p>

how do K+ ions move out

at the same time, gates open in the first part of the axon allowing K+ ions to flow out, this depolarizes that section of the axon

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<p>what happens after K+ ions move out</p>
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<p>what happens after K+ ions move out</p>

what happens after K+ ions move out

the sodium/potassium pumps continues to depolarize new sections of the axon and depolarize previous sections

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<p>how does the impulse move</p>
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<p>how does the impulse move</p>

how does the impulse move

polarthe influx of the positive ions is the neural impulse, the impulse moves down the axon like dominos, one falling after the other

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polarization

the resting rate of the neuron, charge is more positive outside the membrane, and more negative on the inside

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depolarization

the action potential; the rushing in and out of positively charged ions

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repolarization

the refractory period; the closing of the membrane and reestablishing a more negative charge inside

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how do neurons communicate with each other

the sending neuron releases neurotransmitters across a synapse to the receiving neuron

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neurotransmitter

chemical messengers that travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron

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synapse

the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

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what happens when an action potential reaches an axon’s terminal branch

it stimulates the release of neurotransmitter molecules

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acetylcholine (ACh)

enables muscle action, learning, and memory, produces neurons that deteriorate with Alzheimer’s

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dopamine

influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion, oversupply linked to schizophrenia, undersupply linked to tremors and decreased mobility in parkinson’s disease

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serotonin

affects mood, hunger, hunger, sleep, and arousal, undersupply linked to depression

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norepinephrine

helps control alertness and arousal, undersupply can depress mood

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GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)

a major excitatory neurotransmitter, undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia

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glutamate

a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory, oversupply can overstimulate the brain, producing migraines or seizures

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endorphins

neurotransmitters that influence the perception of pain or pleasure, oversupply with opiate can suppress the body’s natural endorphin supply

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how does an agonist work

<p>it mimics a neurotransmitter, opening receptor sites</p>

it mimics a neurotransmitter, opening receptor sites

<p>it mimics a neurotransmitter, opening receptor sites</p>
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how does an antagonist work

blocks a neurotransmitter’s actions, can also work by blocking reuptake

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nerves

bundled axons of many neurons that form neural cables connecting the cns with muscles, glands, and sense organs

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three types of neurons

sensory, motor, and interneurons

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sensory neurons

contain afferent nerve fibers, carry information from the sense organs to the CNS

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motor neurons

contain efferent neurons, carry messages from the CNS to the muscles and glands

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what is the CNS

made up of the brain and spinal cord, decision maker, responsible for coordinating incoming sensory messages and outgoing motor messages

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<p>what is the peripheral nervous system</p>
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<p>what is the peripheral nervous system</p>

what is the peripheral nervous system

made up of sensory and motor neurons, connects the body to the CNS by gathering information from the senses and transmitting messages from the CNS

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two parts of the pns

somatic and autonomic

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somatic nervous system

controls the body’s skeletal muscles

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autonomic nervous system

controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs, operates automatically

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sympathetic nervous system

arouses the body, mobilizing its energy, fight, flight, or freeze

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