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Repetition of consonant sounds
Ex. Sally sells seashells by the sea shore
Repetition of vowel sounds
Ex. kind knight rides by
a concise statement of a truth or principle
Ex. You can kill a man but you can't kill an idea.
Ex. imitation is the highest form of flattery
Ex. Eat to live; don't live to eat.
A writer's or speaker's choice of words
Ex. formal vs informal
informal words or expressions not usually acceptable in formal writing
Ex. ya'll, gonna, wanna
the implied or associative meaning of a word
Ex. shes feeling blue
-implied blue means sad
The dictionary definition of a word
Ex. denotation of hot is giving off heat
using figures of speech; symbolic, not literal
An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant
Ex. "passed away" instead of "died"
Ex. "let go" instead of "fire"
taking words in their usual or most basic sense without metaphor or allegory
Ex. it was raining, so i took the bus
suggesting an incongruity between words and actions/events.
Ex. you have a bad day and say "what a great day!"
implied comparison that does not use like or as
Ex. ur a couch potato
Ex. im so hungry i could eat a horse!
act of showing off learning in a manner that is needless and unimaginative
-pointing out small, minor errors to brag about ones knowledge on that subject.
using too many words, wordy
Ex. he has a verbose writing style
-uses unnecessary amount of words
something that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one.
Ex. animal farm
animals are used to represent the Russian government.
A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase.
Ex. deafening silence
A word that imitates the sound it represents
Ex. "jug, jug, spat"
a statement that seems contradictory but is actually true
Ex. save money by spending it
Ex. beginning of the end
Ex. im a compulsive liar
intended to instruct
Ex. "you are all responsible for each other"
an expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up
Ex. "beating around the bush"
analyzing meaning of words and sentences
Ex. destination and last stop
both mean the same thing
pleasant, harmonious sound
Ex. mists, mellow, close, sun, bless
Ex. all have a pleasant sound
A harsh, discordant mixture of sounds
Ex. dishes crashing on the floor
Everyday language of ordinary people
Any writing that is not poetry
- style of writing that doesnt follow a specific/strict rhythm or flow.
successive sentences or phrases follow the same pattern of wording in order to emphasize the importance of an idea.
Ex. i like to jog, hike, swim, walk, and run.
a group of words with a subject and a verb
Ex. I like to run
A group of words with a meaning; an expression
Sentence that places the main idea or central complete thought at the end of the sentence, after all introductory elements.
Ex. in spite of heavy snow and cold temperatures, the game continued.
independent clause followed by dependent clauses.
Ex. the bells rang, filled the air, startled pigeons, bringing people to the streets to hear the news.
The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun.
Ex. jim says his foot hurts.
jim is the antecedent
A clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence.
Ex. unlike my brother...
Ex. known for his tomfoolery...
A clause that can stand alone as a sentence
Ex. I went to sleep
Ex. our planet circles the sun
questions asked for effect rather than answers
Ex. who doesnt want a million dollars
short and detached
Ex. Savage bees attacked. Violently they killed. Nobody was spared.
has one verb
Ex. she is sleeping.
has more than one subject
Ex. this house is too big, and that house is too small.
one independent and one dependent clause.
Ex. We were tired after the game, so we decided to not go to the party.
two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses
Ex. My cousin's job is very difficult, but He enjoys going to work every day.
sentences that feature exaggerated sentiment or extravagant and flowery language
Ex. The mahogany-haired adolescent girl glanced fleetingly at her rugged paramour, a crystalline sparkle in her eyes as she gazed, enraptured, upon his countenance
stream of consciousness
A literary technique that presents the thoughts and feelings of a character as they occur.
-often chaotic, thoughts as they occur like how a person thinks. yapping your thoughts as they occur
impressive but meaningless language
-boasting to sound impressive but the words you say have little meaning.
Sharply cutting; direct and powerful
Ex. public speakers are incisive
Ex. comedians have incisive humor
concise, using few words
Ex. his laconic reply suggested a lack of interest in the topic
Ridiculing to show weakness in order to make a point
Ex. impersonations of a person you dont like
Sequence of events in a story
Ex. beginning to end of story
Ex. heros journey
a minor plot that relates in some way to the main story
- a side story running parallel to the main plot
- plot = mc getting with fmc
- subplot = mc parents dying
- subplot = villain kidnaps fmc
a comprehensive description and explanation of an idea or theory
- explaining situation and setting of characters
A struggle between opposing forces
- man vs man
- man vs society
- man vs self
the part of a dramatic plot that has to do with the complication of the action
- event that leads up to/causes the climax
a time of intense difficulty, trouble, or danger.
- beginning of the journey to climax
Most exciting moment of the story; turning point
Events after the climax, leading to the resolution
the resolution of the conflict in a story's plot; a final outcome
- end of plot
arranged in an order of time of occurrence
A method of narration in which present action is temporarily interrupted so that the reader can witness past events
Ex. before saying yes, she remembered the promise she had made to her mother years ago.
deus ex machina
an unexpected power or event saving a seemingly hopeless situation, sometimes a supernatural force.
Ex. "it was all a dream" implying all the events never happened irl
expresses a character's inner thoughts
Ex. "I lied," Charles thought, "but maybe she will forgive me."
Ex. She felt very young; at the same time unspeakably aged
The placing of two or more objects, elements, or concepts side by side for comparison or contrast.
Ex. night and day
good and evil
war and peace
understanding scripture by recognizing its connection and significance with political/moral/religious ideas.
a sermon, or a moralistic lecture
a humorous imitation of a serious work
be a warning or indication of (a future event).
Ex. "we'll see about that"
"wait this the next time i see you"
Ex. "no pain no gain"
a fanciful, particularly clever extended metaphor. comparing one thing to two different things
Ex. Coral is far more red than her lips' red
- compares coral and her lips
- compares lover to nature
direct address to someone or something that is not present
Ex. "Dad, I know you are in a better place."
- the dad is dead
A reference to another work of literature, person, or event
Ex. The smell of donuts is like kryptonite to me.
substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with it
Ex. "crown" referring to the king
Ex. "lend me your ear"
A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole
Ex. "offer your hand in marriage"
Ex."feed the mouths"
a declaration or statement
Ex. "I really like it when you wear that shirt."
A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.
three part reasoning
Ex. "All mammals are animals. All elephants are mammals. Therefore, all elephants are animals."
general to specific
Ex. "All dogs have four legs, John's pet is a dog, therefore John's pet has four legs."
specific to general
Ex. The left-handed people I know use left-handed scissors; therefore, all left-handed people use left-handed scissors.
begging the question
An argument is assumed to be true based on the arguments premise.
Ex. Murder is always morally wrong, therefore, abortion is morally wrong.
Argument ad hominem
Attacking a person's views by attacking his or her character
Ex. focusing on a workers personal life to attack their company.
something that draws attention away from the main issue
something that does not logically follow
Ex. "All trees are tall, all tall things are yellow, therefore, all trees are green."
Logical reasoning with one premise left unstated.
Ex: We cannot trust this man, for he has perjured himself in the past. (Missing: Those who perjure themselves cannot be trusted.)
Blaming something that has no connection with the problem.
Ex. a black cat crossed my path, and then I got into a car accident. The black cat caused the car accident.
Water archetype- the sea
death and rebirth (baptism)
birth, creation, enlightenment
Color archetype- green
growth, hope, fertility
the Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Ghost); Mind, Body, Spirit, Birth, Life