100 rhetorical devices

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100 Terms

1

alliteration

Repetition of consonant sounds

Ex. Sally sells seashells by the sea shore

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2

Assonance

Repetition of vowel sounds

Ex. kind knight rides by

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3

Aphorism

a concise statement of a truth or principle

Ex. You can kill a man but you can't kill an idea.

Ex. imitation is the highest form of flattery

Ex. Eat to live; don't live to eat.

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4

Diction

A writer's or speaker's choice of words

Ex. formal vs informal

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5

Colloquialism

informal words or expressions not usually acceptable in formal writing

Ex. ya'll, gonna, wanna

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6

Connotation

the implied or associative meaning of a word

Ex. shes feeling blue

-implied blue means sad

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7

Denotation

The dictionary definition of a word

Ex. denotation of hot is giving off heat

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8

Figurative

using figures of speech; symbolic, not literal

- metaphor

- hyperbole

- personification

-etc

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9

Euphemism

An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant

Ex. "passed away" instead of "died"

Ex. "let go" instead of "fire"

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10

Literal

taking words in their usual or most basic sense without metaphor or allegory

Ex. it was raining, so i took the bus

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11

ironic

suggesting an incongruity between words and actions/events.

Ex. you have a bad day and say "what a great day!"

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12

metaphor

implied comparison that does not use like or as

Ex. ur a couch potato

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13

hyperbole

extreme exaggeration

Ex. im so hungry i could eat a horse!

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14

pedantry

act of showing off learning in a manner that is needless and unimaginative

-pointing out small, minor errors to brag about ones knowledge on that subject.

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15

verbose

using too many words, wordy

Ex. he has a verbose writing style

-uses unnecessary amount of words

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16

allegory

something that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one.

Ex. animal farm

animals are used to represent the Russian government.

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17

oxymoron

A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase.

Ex. deafening silence

Ex. bitterwseet

Ex.friendly fight

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18

Onomatopoeia

A word that imitates the sound it represents

Ex. "jug, jug, spat"

Ex. "KACHOW!"

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19

paradox

a statement that seems contradictory but is actually true

Ex. save money by spending it

Ex. beginning of the end

Ex. im a compulsive liar

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20

didactic

intended to instruct

Ex. "you are all responsible for each other"

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21

idiom

an expression whose meanings cannot be inferred from the meanings of the words that make it up

Ex. "beating around the bush"

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22

semantics

analyzing meaning of words and sentences

Ex. destination and last stop

both mean the same thing

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23

euphony

pleasant, harmonious sound

Ex. mists, mellow, close, sun, bless

Ex. all have a pleasant sound

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24

cacophony

A harsh, discordant mixture of sounds

Ex. dishes crashing on the floor

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25

vernacular

Everyday language of ordinary people

Ex. ya'll

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26

prose(prosaic)

Any writing that is not poetry

- style of writing that doesnt follow a specific/strict rhythm or flow.

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27

parallel construction

successive sentences or phrases follow the same pattern of wording in order to emphasize the importance of an idea.

Ex. i like to jog, hike, swim, walk, and run.

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clause

a group of words with a subject and a verb

Ex. I like to run

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29

phrase

A group of words with a meaning; an expression

-prepositional

- infinitive

- participle

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30

periodic

Sentence that places the main idea or central complete thought at the end of the sentence, after all introductory elements.

Ex. in spite of heavy snow and cold temperatures, the game continued.

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31

loose

independent clause followed by dependent clauses.

Ex. the bells rang, filled the air, startled pigeons, bringing people to the streets to hear the news.

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antecedent

The word, phrase, or clause referred to by a pronoun.

Ex. jim says his foot hurts.

jim is the antecedent

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33

subordinate clause

A clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence.

Ex. unlike my brother...

Ex. known for his tomfoolery...

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34

independent clause

A clause that can stand alone as a sentence

Ex. I went to sleep

Ex. our planet circles the sun

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35

rhetorical questions

questions asked for effect rather than answers

Ex. who doesnt want a million dollars

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36

staccato

short and detached

Ex. Savage bees attacked. Violently they killed. Nobody was spared.

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37

simple

has one verb

Ex. she is sleeping.

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38

compound

has more than one subject

Ex. this house is too big, and that house is too small.

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complex

one independent and one dependent clause.

Ex. We were tired after the game, so we decided to not go to the party.

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Compound-Complex

two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses

Ex. My cousin's job is very difficult, but He enjoys going to work every day.

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41

purple prose

sentences that feature exaggerated sentiment or extravagant and flowery language

Ex. The mahogany-haired adolescent girl glanced fleetingly at her rugged paramour, a crystalline sparkle in her eyes as she gazed, enraptured, upon his countenance

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42

stream of consciousness

A literary technique that presents the thoughts and feelings of a character as they occur.

-often chaotic, thoughts as they occur like how a person thinks. yapping your thoughts as they occur

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43

bombast

impressive but meaningless language

-boasting to sound impressive but the words you say have little meaning.

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44

incisive

Sharply cutting; direct and powerful

Ex. public speakers are incisive

Ex. comedians have incisive humor

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45

laconic

concise, using few words

Ex. his laconic reply suggested a lack of interest in the topic

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46

satiric

Ridiculing to show weakness in order to make a point

Ex. impersonations of a person you dont like

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47

plot

Sequence of events in a story

Ex. beginning to end of story

Ex. heros journey

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48

subplot

a minor plot that relates in some way to the main story

Ex.

- a side story running parallel to the main plot

- plot = mc getting with fmc

- subplot = mc parents dying

- subplot = villain kidnaps fmc

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49

exposition

a comprehensive description and explanation of an idea or theory

- explaining situation and setting of characters

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50

conflict

A struggle between opposing forces

- man vs man

- man vs society

- man vs self

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51

rising climax

the part of a dramatic plot that has to do with the complication of the action

- event that leads up to/causes the climax

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52

crisis

a time of intense difficulty, trouble, or danger.

- beginning of the journey to climax

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53

climax

Most exciting moment of the story; turning point

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54

falling action

Events after the climax, leading to the resolution

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55

denoument

the resolution of the conflict in a story's plot; a final outcome

- end of plot

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56

Chronilogical

arranged in an order of time of occurrence

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57

flashback

A method of narration in which present action is temporarily interrupted so that the reader can witness past events

Ex. before saying yes, she remembered the promise she had made to her mother years ago.

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58

deus ex machina

an unexpected power or event saving a seemingly hopeless situation, sometimes a supernatural force.

Ex. "it was all a dream" implying all the events never happened irl

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59

interior monologue

expresses a character's inner thoughts

Ex. "I lied," Charles thought, "but maybe she will forgive me."

Ex. She felt very young; at the same time unspeakably aged

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60

Juxstaposition

The placing of two or more objects, elements, or concepts side by side for comparison or contrast.

Ex. night and day

good and evil

war and peace

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61

allegorical

understanding scripture by recognizing its connection and significance with political/moral/religious ideas.

-symbolic

-metaphorical

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62

homily

a sermon, or a moralistic lecture

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63

parody

a humorous imitation of a serious work

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64

foreshadow

be a warning or indication of (a future event).

Ex. "we'll see about that"

"wait this the next time i see you"

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65

epigram

witty comment

Ex. "no pain no gain"

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66

conceit

a fanciful, particularly clever extended metaphor. comparing one thing to two different things

Ex. Coral is far more red than her lips' red

- compares coral and her lips

- compares lover to nature

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67

apostrophe

direct address to someone or something that is not present

Ex. "Dad, I know you are in a better place."

- the dad is dead

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68

allusion

A reference to another work of literature, person, or event

Ex. The smell of donuts is like kryptonite to me.

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69

Metonymy

substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with it

Ex. "crown" referring to the king

Ex. "lend me your ear"

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70

Synecdoche

A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole

Ex. "offer your hand in marriage"

Ex."feed the mouths"

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71

Assertion

a declaration or statement

Ex. "I really like it when you wear that shirt."

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72

Syllogism

A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.

three part reasoning

Ex. "All mammals are animals. All elephants are mammals. Therefore, all elephants are animals."

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73

deductive

general to specific

Ex. "All dogs have four legs, John's pet is a dog, therefore John's pet has four legs."

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74

inductive

specific to general

Ex. The left-handed people I know use left-handed scissors; therefore, all left-handed people use left-handed scissors.

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75

begging the question

An argument is assumed to be true based on the arguments premise.

Ex. Murder is always morally wrong, therefore, abortion is morally wrong.

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76

Argument ad hominem

Attacking a person's views by attacking his or her character

Ex. focusing on a workers personal life to attack their company.

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77

red herring

something that draws attention away from the main issue

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78

non sequitur

something that does not logically follow

Ex. "All trees are tall, all tall things are yellow, therefore, all trees are green."

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79

enthymeme

Logical reasoning with one premise left unstated.

Ex: We cannot trust this man, for he has perjured himself in the past. (Missing: Those who perjure themselves cannot be trusted.)

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80

post hoc

Blaming something that has no connection with the problem.

Ex. a black cat crossed my path, and then I got into a car accident. The black cat caused the car accident.

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81

Water archetype- the sea

death and rebirth (baptism)

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82

rising sun

birth, creation, enlightenment

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83

Color archetype- green

growth, hope, fertility

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84

Number archetype-three

the Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Ghost); Mind, Body, Spirit, Birth, Life

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85

Archetype woman-the soul mate

beautiful princess, a characters one true love

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86

creation motif

a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it

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87

the quest hero archetype

Savoir/deliverer --> experiences separation, transformation, and return --> wise old person --> sacrificial scapegoat

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88

initiation

action that causes something, especially an important process or event, to begin

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89

sacrificial scapegoat

the hero, with whom the welfare of the tribe or nation is identified, must die to atone for the people's sins and restore the land to fruitfulness

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90

Water archetype- river

represent the flow of time, rebirth, or cycle of life

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color archetype- blue

tranquility, peace, calm, order, harmony, reliable, serene

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92

Number archetype-four

a symbol of order, stability. the four directions (N-S-E-W); the four elements (air, fire, earth, water)

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93

Color archetype-black

powerful, great, evil

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94

Number archetype-seven

the completed earthly, natural cycle; cosmic order. death and rebirth

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95

mythos of spring

comedy

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96

mythos of fall

tragedy

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97

mythos of summer

romance

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98

mythos of winter

irony

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99

archetypal good

a person who holds a moral compass, doing something for the good of others?

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100

archetypal terrible mother

witch, sorceress

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