Political Parties

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What is a Political Party

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What is a Political Party

an organization of citizens who share a SIMILAR view on government and politics

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What are the Roles of the Political Party?

  1. develop a platform/ideas/policies based on their view of government

  2. create committees to organize the various functions

  3. identify candidates to run for office

  4. raise money/funds to promote the party's candidates

  5. work on behalf of those candidates to get elected

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political parties create committees which host various functions. Do they operate on either: local, state, or national levels?

local, state, AND national levels

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How many congressional districts are there in New York?


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What are primary elections?

voting for candidates WITHIN a party to determine WHO gets the party's support in a General Election

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Endorsed Candidates

the person who won the primary election

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WHO votes in a "Primary" elections is dependant on ...

each state

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Two types of primary elections

open primary and closed primary

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closed primary

ONLY registered party members can vote for their OWN party's candidates

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open primary

ANY registered voter can vote IN ANY of the party's primary election of THEIR CHOICE.

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How can an open primary lead to corruption?

People can vote for the weaker candidate of their enemy party so that their own candidate can win against them.

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General Elections

voting for candidates from ALL parties to fill a position in government

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When is general elections held?

1st Tuesday in November

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What are presidential elections determined by?

electoral college

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Where was the first political parties?

Emerged in Great Britain in the 1600s. They were created during the English Restoration, after Cromwell

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Tories (British)

Wanted a Strong King with an important role as chief executive. Generally conservative

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Whigs (British)

Wanted a Strong Parliament and to gain executive powers. Generally liberal.

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Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton's views on political parties

  1. Thomas Jefferson's View of Political Parties: "If I could not go to heaven but with a party, I would not go there at all." HATES political parties

  2. Alexander Hamilton's View of Political Parties: "a vice which must be guarded against at all times." HATES political parties

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James Madison views on political parties

they were probably necessary

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T/F: The Federalists were the first political ideology/party in the US


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  • led by James Madison

  • followed by northern businessmen, bankers, merchants

  • supported a strong, centralized gov and laws that protected businesses and industrialization

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Who were the first opposition to the federalists?


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  • led by Thomas Jefferson

  • followed by farmers, small businesses, artisans (southerners)

  • wanted a weak, centralized gov, because gov is best which governs least

  • supported more state freedoms/powers

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T/F: The Democract-Republicans supported extending democracy in Europe


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Democract Party

  • founded by Andrew Jackson.

  • It was followed by conservatives, mostly southerners.

  • supported pro-state rights, free trade (anti-tariff), small government

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The Democract Party evolved from

the Democrat-Republicans

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The Whig Party (American)

  • followed by Liberals and mostly northerners

  • supported protective tariffs and big businesses.

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The Whig Party (American) opposed

Democratic Party (Jacksonian democrats)

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Southerners are generally _____ and Northerners are generally ___

conservative, liberal

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Which two parties splintered off the Whig Party?

The Know-Nothings and the Free-Soilers

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The Know-Nothings were generally anti...

anti-Catholic, anti-foreigners/immigrants, and were nationalistic

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Free Soilers

  • abolitionists and expansionists (manifest destiny)

  • dissolved by the late 1850s because of slavery issues

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The Republican Party was founded in

1854, John C. Fremont (a Republican) ran for president in 1856

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Republican Party

  • formerly whigs and free soilers

  • northerners exclusively

  • abolitionists and expansionists and wanted Gov't support for Industrialization & Infrastructure

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Conservative Ideology

a belief in LITTLE to NO Change in government

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Conservatives believed that the gov is best when it

governs the least

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Liberal Ideology

a belief that GOVERNMENT should be an agent of change

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T/F: Liberals believe that the government should solve people's problems


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The Civil War established which party as dominant after the war?

The Republican Party

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Most industrial buisnesses were in the ____


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Which two countries were a democracy in the 19th century?

ONLY the Netherlands and Britain

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the right to vote and the right to express yourself freely

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Slavery broke up the (Whig/Tories) Party


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Highly centralized government

Few people make decisions. Federalists favored this

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many people make decisions

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Socialist/Liberals believe

  1. Government is an agent for change

  2. Prefer shared decision-making

  3. Younger and poorer

  4. Likes diversity and change

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Conservatives believe

  1. Like little change - prefer stabilty

  2. Strong executives

  3. Older and wealthier people

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Order of political parties in America

Federalists, Democrat-Republicans, Democrat Party (splintered from the previous party), Whig Party, Know-Nothings and Free Soilers (splintered from the Whigs)

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The republican party was made from the

whigs and free soilers

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Which party believed that the gov is best when it governs the least?


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Has a presidential election ever been won by a third party candidate?


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The GREATEST indicator of 3rd Party Influence in elections is _____ because ___

The ECONOMY. When economic times are TOUGH and the leadership/government is NOT responsive, other Parties tend to form

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Political Party Ideology Can SHIFT/CHANGE due to conditions in Society, such as...

abuse of working class, budget deficits. voting rights

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P r o g r e s s i v e (Bull Moose) - a Reform Party created by _____ and splintered off the _____

Theodore Roosevelt (was a Republican) and splintered off the Republican party

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Platform/Beliefs of Bull Moose Party

  • women's suffrage

  • -wanted limits on campaign contributions, tariff reduction, "social security"/retirement pensions, and 8 hour workday

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What happened to the Bull Moose Party?

They died out in the late 1920s and its members joined the Democrat party

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How did the Bull Moose party contribute to the Democrat/Republican role reversal?

Many "Progressives" joined the Democratic Party

  • Wilson GRUDGINGLY giving-in to the Suffragettes led to women identifying more closely to the Democratic Party, as Republicans were MUCH MORE supportive of Industrial/Corporate interests

  • This was a PIVOTAL POINT in which the Democratic and Republican platforms began a policy role reversal which would more reflect the party political alignments of present day - with Democrats, Franklin Roosevelt

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Discuss why Woodrow Wilson supported women's suffrage

Woodrow Wilson (a Democrat) joined the Suffrage movement AFTER the U.S. entered World War I to: 1. QUIET the criticism for abusing Suffragettes who were Abused and Imprisoned. 2. UNIFY people who were critical of U.S. entry into a "European War"

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WHAT does it mean to be politically independent?

These are people of NO STRONG political ideology. They are moderates, meaning at times leaning left or right depending on the issue.

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WHAT political party has MORE registered voters since the 1940s?

the Democratic party.

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Discuss WHAT the Moral Majority was.

The socially conservative were the "Moral Majority". They supported "Pro-Life"/Anti-Abortion. Did NOT support same gender marriage. Did NOT support "affirmative action" to help hire minorities.

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Describe HOW Ronald Reagan changed the Republican Party.

He captured the spirit of conservative values and won very easily. Southern Evangelical followers were ATTRACTED to Reagan's "Social Conservatism". Within 10 YEARS, millions of "Dixiecrats" became Republican. This was how the South became more Republican and the parties switched.

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Socalist party

  • Created to HELP the working class against laissez-faire gov't policies

  • Leaders: Eugene V. Debs, Walter Lippmann

  • Conflicts within the party over organization around the use of violence, race, and democracy

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Platforms/Beliefs of the Socialist Party

  • BETTER wage and working conditions for the working class

  • Neutrality in International affairs - Anti-war

  • Gov't is THE AGENT for changes to make people equal

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What were the cons of the Socialist Party?

Marginalized - made insignificant from "both ends" of the party

  • they were the "right-wing", non-violent, working with democracy/voting by the working class

  • were eventually absorbed by F.D.R. Democrats

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social welfare programs

  • C.C.C. - Civil Conservation Corps - National Parks & Environmental Projects

  • T.V.A. - Tennessee Valley Authority - Power/Electrical

  • W.P.A. - Works Progress Administration - Infrastructure

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D i x i e c r a t

Created by Southern Leaders/Politicians

  1. a breakaway faction of the Democratic Party,

  2. protect States' Rights to keep Racial Segregation

  3. a. they did NOT LIKE INTEGRATION of schools & the military

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Leaders of the dixicrat party

Strom Thurmond, Fielding Wright

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the "Platform"/Beliefs of Dixiecrats

"Jim Crow" & "Separate, but Equal"

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Democratic Sponsorship of the 1964 Civil Rights Act _____ southern Democrat leaders


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Why did most Dixiecrats become Republican

the "Reagan Revolution" was very attractive to MOST DIXIECRATS, SO, MANY became Republicans throughout the 1980s to present

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Dixiecrats were generally

Southern Evangelical followers, who were attracted to Reagan's "Social Conservatism". Within 10 YEARS, millions of "Dixiecrats" became Republican

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T e a P a r t y

1.Vehemently, Passionately and ANTI-TAX Party

2.Splintered-off from the Republican Party, Leaders: Mitch McConnell, Ron Paul

3.formed AFTER Obama was elected and the Federal RELIEF of nearly bankrupt Banks and Auto Manufacturers occurred

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leaders of tea party

Mitch McConnell, Ron Paul

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the "Platform"/Beliefs: of the Tea Party

  • they OPPOSE U.S. tax dollars going to private businesses. they wanted to balance the Federal Budget

  • Also, OPPOSED to the Affordable Care Act of 2010

  • . foreign policy - ONLY get involved in conflicts that promote "American Values" and can be "easily" won

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Why did the Tea Party criticize the Affordable Care Act? (2 reasons)

(1) "socialized" medicine - "reduces" freedom of choice(s) in choosing doctors, procedures

(2) "limits" profitability in health research/drug development

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Ronald Reagan believed in

Socially Conservatism, Rapid Military Build-Up, like a strong Strategic Defense Initiative, and HUGE Budget Deficits to Lower Taxes & INCREASE Military spending

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a proposed law

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Sources for Bills

a proposed LAW can come from ANYONE!

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when a Representative or Senator agrees to INTRODUCE a Bill, "they" are its


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Bills are assigned a number

True. Example: (1) HR123 - House Resolution 123

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All bills start in

either the house of reps or senate

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What is the ONE bill that can only come from the House?

Appropriation Bills - proposals to tax and spend money, MUST start in the House

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Committees (3 points)

  1. Organized by ISSUES - Budget, Climate, Education, Energy, Labor, Science, Environment, Military, Agriculture.

  2. they meet to discuss POSSIBLE laws/policies regarding the purpose of government

  3. IF a proposed law DOES NOT pass the vote in a committee, it will NOT become a law

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Types of Committees in Congress

standing, select, joint, conference

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Standing Committee

a PERMANENT Committee. Oldest, and deals with "ways and means", like tax spending.

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Select Committee

a NEW(ER) Committee on a relatively NEW Issue/Problem

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Advisory Committee

does NOT have Much Power, just advises on issues

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Joint Committee (Conference Committee)

members are from BOTH the House & the Senate. Both Senate and House meet to reconcile bills (make the bills identical)

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How are committees separated?

All the other committees are separated between the house and the senate, like two for standing committees, two for select, two for advisory. But NOT the Joint Committee

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ANY Bill introduced MUST go to

A Particular House AND Senate STANDING Committees. Like, a Bill Related to Education goes to the Standing Committee on Education

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FOUR things HAPPEN Once a Bill is Assigned. What are they?

  1. the Bill is Set ASIDE by the Chairman - effectively KILLING the Bill

  2. Hearings are Called. Hearings - "experts" BOTH in Support of the Bill and Opposed to the Bill are called to express their OPINIONS on the proposal

  3. a VOTE within the committee to accept the Bill and send it to the Floor for a VOTE

  4. Sent to the Floor OR Killed in Committee

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House Action in Committees

  1. the Speaker Decides WHEN or IF that Bill is sent to the Floor

  2. IF it is put on the Agenda, THEN the House Rules Committee determines HOW MUCH time will be given for DEBATE

  3. a VOTE is Made, must have a Quorum - more than 50% of the Reps

  4. IF APPROVED, sent to the Senate

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Senate Action

  1. SAME STEPS as the House

  2. IF the Senate has a SIMILAR BILL, it's sent to a Joint House/Senate Committee

  3. Filibuster - one senator can "talk the Bill to DEATH" to PREVENT a Vote on the Bill or stop Debate. This Speech can ONLY be stopped by 3/5ths vote in the Senate

  4. Cloture - a Vote to end Debate and Vote on the proposed Bill

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Bill Goes to the President - THREE (3) Things can Happen

  1. He/She approves It

  2. He/She VETOES It

  3. He/She "pocket vetoes" It, refuses to take action within 10 DAYS and the Congressional Term ENDS - It will NOT be a LAW

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a 2/3rds Vote by BOTH the House and the Senate to approve of the Bill to make it a Law

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90% of all bills never pass!


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The senate leader is

Chuck Schumer

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The speaker of the house

Kevin McCarthy

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Two committees made recently

  • January 6th committee - investigating the insurrection of the capitol

  • Cyber terrorism committee

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