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results from increase in the number and size of body cells
what is the basic unit of growth?
true or false all part of the animal develop equally at the same rate
differential growth of body parts
why are the legs larger in comparison to the rest of the body in newborn calves
what tissue primarily develops pre-Nataly?
what are the 2 types of growth?
hyperplasia and hypertrophy
increase in number of cells
increase in cell size
what type of growth is double-muscling?
hypertrophy (formed during infancy and increase in size later)
what is the growth curve for all animals called?
S shaped or Sigmoid Curve
what marks the beginning of rapid growth?
how much growth occurs prior to birth?
how rapid is growth immediately after birth
inability for cells to replicate and grow (decline)
when is the most efficient time of growth?
puberty to maturity
when does the growth curve begin?
what are the growth units on a growth curve
no weight gain or loss
fed lower energy diet for a period of time
what is the benefit of compensatory gain?
increased feed efficiency and gain over traditional feeding
true or false early maturing and later maturing follow different growth curves
what is the difference in the growth curves of early and late maturing?
length of growth pattern
what factors affect maturity?
true or false there is more variation between breeds than within a breed?
in what species do males mature quicker than females?
are early or late maturing animals generally larger framed?
age in days or time units (teeth)
The time when an animal reaches a certain level of development (bone ossification)
what are the primary tissues that develop postnatally?
which tissue is the earliest maturing and remains at a constant body %?
true bone cells
bone forming cells
bone destroying cells
Where does growth in length occur?
what is growth in width a response to?
stress/ increased activity
how much bone is replaced each year in healthy animals?
what is the 2nd tissue to develop?
what tissue is extremely important to the meat industry?
when does muscle rapidly increase and slow?
increase at puberty slow near maturity
what is an example of restructured meat?
Arby's roast beef from the chuck/shoulder (tough meat)
what are the 3 types of muscles?
how do muscles change in size?
based on activity-hypertrophy
true or false hyperplasia is common in adult animals?
support and locomotion
what is the last tissue to develop?
true or false fat begins to increase as muscle deposition slows down
what are the 4 types of fat?
what is the order of fat deposition?
which 2 types of fat can be switched in order of deposition?
intermuscular and subcutaneous
which fat is the first to go in an energy deficient state (diet)?
the last fat deposited
under the skin (insulation
between muscles (seam fat)
marbling (adds flavor and juiciness)
what factors affect growth?
why can sex effect physiological maturity?
difference in hormonal balance
promotes fat deposition
what do implants add?
estrogenic or androgenic effects
where are implants inserted?
middle 1/3 of the ear
what do implants do?
improve feed efficiency
goals for growth
moderate birth weight
increase in weight
weight per day of age (WDA)
current weight/days of age
increase per unit of time (ADG)
W2-W1 / time in days
days to 260 (fewer days is more desireable)
ideal ADG for cattle
ideal ADG for swine
ideal ADG for sheep
an animal with average performance within a group will have a ratio of 100
what is the feed to gain ratio for pigs
what is the feed to gain ratio for cattle
true or false environment affects the degree of expressed genetic potential
what is our goal with environment
to provide the optimum climate for maximum production
true or false the most economical environment also reaches maximum production
what factors go into animal productivity?
what is the most important thing do to when considering animal productivity?
think like an animal
what are the 2 general classifications of animals?
exotherms/poikilotherms have wide swings in body temperature