ASI 102 Test 3

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Growth

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368 Terms

1

Growth

results from increase in the number and size of body cells

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2

what is the basic unit of growth?

cells

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3

true or false all part of the animal develop equally at the same rate

false

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4

development

differential growth of body parts

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5

why are the legs larger in comparison to the rest of the body in newborn calves

horses

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6

what tissue primarily develops pre-Nataly?

bone

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7

what are the 2 types of growth?

hyperplasia and hypertrophy

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8

hyperplasia

increase in number of cells

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9

hypertrophy

increase in cell size

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10

what type of growth is double-muscling?

hypertrophy

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11

fat cells

hypertrophy (formed during infancy and increase in size later)

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12

what is the growth curve for all animals called?

S shaped or Sigmoid Curve

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13

what marks the beginning of rapid growth?

puberty

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14

how much growth occurs prior to birth?

very little

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15

how rapid is growth immediately after birth

initially slow

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16

senescence

inability for cells to replicate and grow (decline)

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17

when is the most efficient time of growth?

puberty to maturity

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18

when does the growth curve begin?

following conception

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19

what are the growth units on a growth curve

pounds

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20

maintenance

no weight gain or loss

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21

growth

increase weight

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22

compensatory gain

fed lower energy diet for a period of time

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23

what is the benefit of compensatory gain?

increased feed efficiency and gain over traditional feeding

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24

true or false early maturing and later maturing follow different growth curves

false

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25

what is the difference in the growth curves of early and late maturing?

length of growth pattern

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26

what factors affect maturity?

breed

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27

true or false there is more variation between breeds than within a breed?

false

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28

in what species do males mature quicker than females?

swine

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29

are early or late maturing animals generally larger framed?

later maturing

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30

chronological age

age in days or time units (teeth)

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31

Physiological age

The time when an animal reaches a certain level of development (bone ossification)

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32

what are the primary tissues that develop postnatally?

bone

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33

which tissue is the earliest maturing and remains at a constant body %?

bone

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34

osteocytes

true bone cells

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35

osteoblasts

bone forming cells

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36

osteoclasts

bone destroying cells

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37

Where does growth in length occur?

long bones

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38

what is growth in width a response to?

stress/ increased activity

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39

how much bone is replaced each year in healthy animals?

5-10%

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40

what is the 2nd tissue to develop?

muscle

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41

what tissue is extremely important to the meat industry?

muscle

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42

when does muscle rapidly increase and slow?

increase at puberty slow near maturity

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43

what is an example of restructured meat?

Arby's roast beef from the chuck/shoulder (tough meat)

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44

what are the 3 types of muscles?

skeletal

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45

how do muscles change in size?

based on activity-hypertrophy

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46

true or false hyperplasia is common in adult animals?

false

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47

skeletel muscle

support and locomotion

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48

smooth muscle

GI tract

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49

cardiac muscle

heart

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50

what is the last tissue to develop?

fat

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51

true or false fat begins to increase as muscle deposition slows down

true

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52

what are the 4 types of fat?

subcutaneous

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53

what is the order of fat deposition?

KPH

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54

which 2 types of fat can be switched in order of deposition?

intermuscular and subcutaneous

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55

which fat is the first to go in an energy deficient state (diet)?

the last fat deposited

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56

subcutaneous

under the skin (insulation

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57

KPH

kidney

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58

Intermuscular

between muscles (seam fat)

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59

Intramuscular

marbling (adds flavor and juiciness)

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60

what factors affect growth?

nutrition

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61

why can sex effect physiological maturity?

difference in hormonal balance

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62

estrogen

promotes fat deposition

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63

what do implants add?

estrogenic or androgenic effects

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64

where are implants inserted?

middle 1/3 of the ear

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65

what do implants do?

improve feed efficiency

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66

feed additives

ionophores

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67

goals for growth

moderate birth weight

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68

increase in weight

W2-W1=growth

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69

weight per day of age (WDA)

current weight/days of age

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70

increase per unit of time (ADG)

W2-W1 / time in days

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71

Swine ADG

days to 260 (fewer days is more desireable)

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72

ideal ADG for cattle

4-6

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73

ideal ADG for swine

2-3

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74

ideal ADG for sheep

1/4-1/2

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75

individual performance

an animal with average performance within a group will have a ratio of 100

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76

what is the feed to gain ratio for pigs

2:1

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77

what is the feed to gain ratio for cattle

5:1

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78

true or false environment affects the degree of expressed genetic potential

true

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79

what is our goal with environment

to provide the optimum climate for maximum production

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80

true or false the most economical environment also reaches maximum production

false

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81

what factors go into animal productivity?

management

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82

what is the most important thing do to when considering animal productivity?

think like an animal

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83

what are the 2 general classifications of animals?

cold blooded

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84

cold blooded

exotherms/poikilotherms have wide swings in body temperature

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85

examples of exotherms?

snakes

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86

true or false poikilotherms are high maintenance?

false

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87

does PETA support the ownership of snakes?

no

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88

warm blooded

endotherms/homeotherms maintain a "constant" body temperature

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89

true or false all farm animals can tolerate vast differences in environment

true they are endotherms

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90

when do you measure the temperature of an endotherm

first thing in the morning

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91

equation to maintain a constant body temperature

(heat produces) + (heat received) = (heat loss)

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92

what are the 4 major avenues of heat gain or loss?

radiation

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93

radiation (Rd)

exchange of heat between non-toughing objects

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94

example of radiation

sun versus cold concrete (gain & loss)

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95

Conduction (Cd)

flow of heat from warm to cold objects which are touching

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96

example of conduction

cold floor

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97

what is the primary means of heat transfer?

convection

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98

convection (Cv)

flow of heat through air or water

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99

if a calf is born in the spring/winter where does the heat go?

in

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100

if a calf is born in the fall where does the heat go?

out

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