Super long microbiology stuff (thx for teaching me how to do the Quizlet thing

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Microbiology

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It’s long but yeah

234 Terms

1

Microbiology

Specialized area of biology that deals with organisms ordinarily too small to be seen without magnification.

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2

Microorganisms

A living thing ordinarily too small to be seen without magnification.

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3

Classification

Orderly arrangement of organisms into groups.

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4

Nomenclature

System of assigning names.

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5

Binomial nomenclature

Two-name system of naming organisms (Latin, Greek). Two names: Genus, species. It's always underlined or italicized. Genus first letter always capitalized, species not capitalized. Once it's been mentioned, the genus name can be shortened.

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6

Acellular organisms

Viruses. Exist without a cellular structure.

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7

Cellular organisms

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

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8

Prokaryotes

Organisms whose genetic material is not enclosed in membrane and lack specific organelles including a nucleus (bacteria).

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9

Eukaryotes

Organisms whose genetic material is enclosed in nucleus (fungi, protozoa, algae).

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10

Prokaryotes versus Eukaryotes

Prokaryotic cells are smaller than eukaryotic cells, and in addition to lacking a nucleus, they lack other complex internal compartments called organelles. All prokaryotes are microorganisms while only some eukaryotes are microorganisms (including algae, protozoa, molds and yeasts- and even anthropods).

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11

Binary fission

The way bacteria reproduce. Splitting of a parent cell into two equal parts.

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12

Pathogen

Disease causing agents.

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13

Genetic engineering

Manipulates the genetics of microbes, plants, and animals for the purpose of creating new products and genetically modified organisms.

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14

Recombinant DNA

Switch DNA from one organism to another to design new organisms.

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15

Lactic acid bacteria

Dairy products, yogurt and cheese.

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16

Hypothesis

A tentative explanation or statement to account for what is observed or measured.

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17

Theory

Hypothesis backed by growing data.

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18

Spontaneous generation

Life can rise from nonliving material.

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19

Cell theory

All things are made of cells.

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20

Biogenesis

the production of living organisms from other living organisms

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21

Fermentation

Organisms convert sugar into alcohol or acid (vinegar). Using bacterial/fungal enzymes, convert food substrate from one form to another. Aid in slow food spoilage. Foods use it for flavor and other properties. Fermentation products include Lactic acid, acetic acid, yeast, etc.

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22

Pasteurization

To kill organisms by heat, some spoiling agents still stay.

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23

Germ theory of disease

Theory that microbes can invade other organisms and cause diseases.

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24

Koch's postulates

Set of procedures to determine if a microbe causes a certain disease. Verified the germ theory of disease.

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25

Aseptic technique

Aimed at reducing microbes in a medical setting and preventing wound infections. Lister proposed the idea of aspetic techniques and the importance of hand washing and equipment sterilization.

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26

Chemotherapy

Treatment of disease by the use of chemical substances. Now problem with drug resistance.

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27

Synthetic drugs

Chemical substances made in a lab.

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28

Antibiotics

Chemical substance made by microbes.

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29

General sizes of macroscopic organisms?

1 mm

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30

Size of Microscopic organisms?

1 um to 100 um

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31

Size of Viruses?

10 nm to 100 nm

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32

What are the 3 domains used in the Woese-Fox system of classification?

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya.

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33

Which domain are fungi members of?

Eukarya

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34

Which domain are Viruses?

Neither

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35

Viruses

Neither prokaryote or eukaryote; acellular. Very small (nm). Need an electron microscope to see them. Parasite. Core/caspid contains nucleic acids and a protein coat. Some envelope around caspids.

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36

Bacteria

Prokaryote. All are microbes. Has a cell wall made up of Eubacteria peptidoglycan. Absorb nutrition. Reproduce by binary fission. Unicellular. Commonly found in biofilms.

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37

Algae

Unicellular, some are multicellular. Reproduce asexually and sexually. Nutrition by photosynthesis. Cell wall made of cellulose.

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38

Fungi

Some are unicellular, some are multicellular. Nonmotile. Reproduce by asexual and sexual reproduction. Cell wall made of chitin. Fungi digest outside then ingest, absorb by release enzymes into environment. Cell membrane made of ergosterol instead of cholesterol.

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39

Protozoa

Unicellular. Reproduce sexually and asexually. No cell wall. Absorb nutrition. Use pseudopods, cilia and flagella for motility.

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40

Name 3 cellular structures protozoa use for locomotion

Pseudopods, flagella, cilia.

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41

Be familiar with the ways that microbes affect the world.

Found everywhere, part of the ecosystem (make greenhouse gasses, soil formation, mineral extraction), Nutrient recycling (CO2 and Nitrogen fixation). Decomposition. Interactions with other organisms- pathogens or beneficial.

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42

What general metabolic process used by microbes aids in food production?

Fermentation.

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43

Why did the study of microorganisms not officially begin until the 1500s?

Microscope not developed until the 1500's.

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44

Hooke

Coined the term "cell."

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45

Needham

Spontaneous bacteria in heated broth with cover.

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46

Pasteur

S-neck flask and aseptic technique. Vaccine for cholera and rabies.

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47

Schwann & Schleiden

All living things are made of cells.

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48

Lister

Use carbolic acid sprayer (phenol) to sterilize surgical wounds and instruments to reduce infection.

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49

Semmelweis

Hand washing during child birth by doctors.

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50

Jenner

Vaccine for smallpox.

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51

Venter & Smith

Complete sequence of bacterial genome.

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52

What are the three theories of how life emerged discussed in lecture?

Cell theory, biogenesis, spontaneous generation.

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53

What were the major accomplishments of the Golden Age of Microbiology?

Fermentation Pasteurization, Germ Theory, Vaccination.

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54

Why does milk spoil even if it is pasteurized?

Some spoilage organisms stay.

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55

Name two foods that are pasteurized besides milk

Eggs, Honey.

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56

What are the two types of chemotherapy?

Synthetic drugs and antibiotics.

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57

Sterile

Complete absence of viable microbes.

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58

Aseptic

Prevent infection.

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59

Inoculation

Cultivating (CULTURING) microorganisms by introducing a sample (INOCULUM) into a container of nutrient medium.

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60

Culture

Observable growth that appears in or on the medium (cloudiness, colony)

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61

Incubation

The medium is placed in a temperature-controlled chamber (INCUBATOR) to allow for growth that is observed macroscopically as growth on the plate surface or cloudiness in a liquid medium. Important because this is where cells have a chance to duplicate.

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62

Isolation

Separate individual microbes and achieve isolated colonies

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63

Inspection

Colonies/broth observed macroscopically for growth characteristics (Color, texture, size) for analysis.

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64

Identification

Determine the type of microbe.

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65

Inoculum

Sample.

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66

Agar

Growth medium that is flexible, holds nutrients and moisture. Solid at room temperature, not readily digested by organisms.

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67

Synthetic/defined growth media

All chemicals known.

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68

Complex growth media

Exact chemical makeup unknown.

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69

General purpose growth media

Broad spectrum, usually nonsynthetic/complex, no specific growth requirements (nutrient agar or TSA). Grows a bunch of things at once. Just put a bunch on and see what grows.

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70

Enriched growth media

Complex medium with added special nutrients (vitamins, serum), growth of fastidious organisms. Example: Blood agar.

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71

Selective growth media

One or more agents that inhibit growth of certain organisms from a mixed sample. Kills one type and selects a different one.

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72

Differential growth media

Allow for the growth of different microbes but permits ways of telling them apart. Doesn't kill one type.

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73

Fastidious organisms

Organisms that require complex nutrients and special growth factors.

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74

Colony

Mounds of cells, consists of one species.

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75

Pure culture

Only one known species/type of microbe identified.

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76

Mixed culture

Two or more easily identified species of microbes- the different types SHOULD be there.

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77

Contaminated culture

Once pure/mixed culture with undesired organisms (CONTAMINANTS) added that ruins experiment.

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78

Magnification

The ability of a microscope lens to make the image of an object to appear enlarged.

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79

Resolution

Resolving power, the ability of a microscope lens to distinguish between two separate entities that sit near one another, ability to show detail.

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80

Virtual image

Image observed by the eye. Formed by ocular lens.

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81

Real image

Formed by objective lens, closest to the specimen.

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82

Total magnification

Power of objective lens X power of ocular lens.

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83

Mount

Specimen placed on glass slide.

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84

Smear

Dead or fixed preps.

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85

Why are studying microbes a challenge for scientists?

Microbes hard to see without help, Can have contamination from other undesirable organisms, Microbes found in complex associations so need to separate and identify different organisms, Need to grow organisms in artificial conditions.

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86

What are the 5 I's of culturing microbes?

Inoculation, Incubation, Isolation, Isolation, Inspection, and Identification.

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87

What are examples of instruments used for inoculation?

Loop, needles, pipettes, swabs.

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88

Only 1% of all microorganisms are studied in the lab. Why do you think this is the case?

Some microbes are nonculturable meaning we can't supply them with the proper growth medium.

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89

What are the advantages of the use of agar as the hardening agent in growth medium as compared to gelatin?

Agar is solid at room temperature and not digestible by organisms. Also, agar is flexible and holds moisture and nutrients.

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90

Agar is what type of macromolecule and is made from what organism?

Carbohydrate

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91

What are the differences between synthetic and complex media?

We know all of the chemicals of synthetic media but complex media has one or more unknown chemicals.

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92

If blood or milk is added to a medium, is it complex or synthetic?

Complex.

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93

Liquefiable or reversible solid media example

Agar, Gelatin.

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94

Nonliquefiable media example

Potato slices.

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95

General Purpose Medium

Nutrient agar/ Trypticase soy agar (TSA).

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96

Complex media example

Nutrient agar/blood agar/ EMB/ MacConkey agar.

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97

Enriched media example

Blood agar.

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98

Selective media example

EMB/MacConkey agar/ Sabourauds/Salmonella Shigella.

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99

Differential media example

Hektoen/EMB/ Blood Agar/Bird Seed.

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100

examples of growth media that have multiple functions

MacConkey and Blood Agar and Mannitol Salt Agar.

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