Kinesiology Exam Two

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What is the purpose using anatomical terms?

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What is the purpose using anatomical terms?

To use the same language across a field

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What is anatomical position?

When the person stands erect with feet together, eyes forward, and palms facing anteriorly with thumbs pointed away from the body

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What are the two regional terms of the body, and what do they include?

Axial - the main axis of the body; Appendicular - the limbs

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When referencing anatomical terms, is there a common direction?

No, everything has a relative position to something else

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What does directional terminology refer to?

The body in anatomical position

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What does superior mean?

Towards the head or upper part of the body

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What is an example of the term superior?

The head is superior to the abdomen

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What does inferior mean?

Away from the head or toward the lower part of the body

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What is an example of the term inferior?

The navel is inferior to the chin

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What does the term anterior mean?

Toward the front of the body, forward from the midline

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What is an example of the term anterior?

The breastbone is anterior to the spine

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What does the term posterior mean?

Toward the back of the body

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What is an example of the term posterior?

The heart is posterior to the breastbone

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What does medial mean?

Toward the midline of the body

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What is an example of the term medial?

The heart is medial to the arm

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What does lateral mean?

Away from the midline of the body

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What is an example of the term lateral?

The arms are lateral to the chest

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What does proximal mean?

Closer to the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.

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What is an example of the term proximal?

The elbow is proximal to the wrist

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What does distal mean?

Farther away from the point attachment of a limb to the body trunk

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What is an example of the term distal?

The knee is distal to the thigh

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What does superficial mean?

Toward or at the body surface, more external

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What is an example of the term superficial?

The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles

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What does deep mean?

Away from the body surface, more internal

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What is an example of the term deep?

The lungs are deep to the skin

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What does ipsilateral mean?

On the same side of the body

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What is an example of the term ipsilateral?

The right hand and right foot are ipsilateral

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What does contralateral mean?

On opposite sides of the body

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What is an example of the term contralateral?

The right hand and left foot are contralateral

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What does the term cephalic mean?

Anything that refers to the head

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What does the term cervical mean?

Anything that refers to the neck

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What does the term thoracic mean?

Things that pertain to the chest

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What does the term abdominal mean?

Things that pertain to the abdomen, encompasses the area around the kidneys and intestines

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What does the term pelvic mean?

Things that are encompassed within the part of the body that connects the trunk to the legs

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What does the term pubic mean?

The central part of the body, the groin area near the pubes and the pubis

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What does the term upper limb mean?

Contains the upper portions of the arm

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What does the term manus mean?

The wrist and the hand

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What does the term lower limb refer to?

Includes many important elements of the body, such as the coxal, femoral, and fibular.

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What does the term pedal mean?

The foot

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In the posterior portion of the body, what encompasses the upper limb?

Anything that is above the wrist

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In the posterior portion, what does the hand encompass?

Metacarpal and digital

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In the posterior portion, what does the lower limb encompass?

Anything that is below the hip crease

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What does the pedal in the posterior portion encompass?

It encompasses the foot

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What is the cephalic in the posterior portion of the body?

It refers to the back of the head

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What is the cervical in the posterior portion of the body?

It refers to the back of the neck

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What is the dorsal in the posterior portion of the body?

It is the back of the body

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What is the coronal (frontal) plane?

It lies vertically and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts

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What is the sagittal plane?

It lies vertically and divides the body into left and right sides

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What is the median (midsagittal) plane?

A specific sagittal plane that lies vertically in the midline

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What is the transverse plane?

It runs horizontally and divides the body into superior and inferior body parts

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What are oblique sections through the trunk?

They are planes that cut in rotational directions at angles

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What is the dorsal cavity comprised of?

The cranial and vertebral cavities

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What does the cranial cavity contain?

Brain

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What does the vertebral cavity contain?

Spinal cord

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What is the ventral body cavity comprised of?

The thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities, which are in front of the spine

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What does the thoracic cavity contain?

heart and lungs

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Other than the heart and lungs, what other structures does the thoracic cavity contain?

Superior mediastinum, pleural cavity, and pericardial cavity within the mediastinum

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What does the abdominal cavity contain?

Digestive viscera

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What does the pelvic cavity contain?

Bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

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When looking at the human body straight on, what are the four quadrants from top to bottom and left to right?

right upper, left upper, right lower, and left lower quadrants

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When looking at the human body straight on, what are the nine regions from top to bottom and left to right?

Right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right iliac, hypogastric, and left iliac

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What is goniometry?

The science and technique of measuring angles

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Why should we measure using a goniometer?

To find restrictions, pathologies, and impairment. Also, to establish a diagnosis, and to document improvement

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What is the body of a goniometer?

It is the circle portion of the instrument that connects one side of both the moving and stationary arm

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What is the fulcrum of the goniometer?

It is located in the body and at the center of the instrument. It is placed over the joint that is being measured, and is a screw like device that allows the moving arm to move freely

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How is the body of the goniometer designed?

Like a protractor, meaning that a full circle equals 360 degrees and a half circle equals 180 degrees

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What is the moving arm of the goniometer?

It aligns with the mobile part of the joint that is being measured

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What is the stationary arm of the goniometer?

It aligns with the inactive part of the joint that is being measured and located near the proximal bone

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How is the goniometer measured?

By degrees in the rate of motion (ROM), meaning that the movement of the distal segment on proximal segment

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When using a goniometer, what starting position in degrees encompasses anatomical position?

0 degrees

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What does active and passive movement refer to?

Active means when a person moves a body part by themselves, while passive means that another person moves their body part

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What is osteokinematics?

It is also called bone motion, which is relative motion determined by the excursion on one shaft of bone relative to another (or to the ground)

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What is arthrokinematics?

It is also called joint motion, which describes the movement of the joint surfaces that are necessary for joint motion.

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What movements are encompassed within arthokinematics?

Slides/glides (translational motion) and spins/rolls (rotary motion), which are all based on concave/convex rules

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When using a goniometer, what best describes the movement?

Planar

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What kind of movements occur within the sagittal plane?

Flexion and extension

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What kind of movements occur in the frontal plane?

Abduction (raising arms up) and adduction (raising arms down)

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What kind of movements occur in the transverse plane?

Rotation

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What are functional tasks when referencing planes and axes?

Multi-joint, multi-planar

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What is the range of motion (ROM)?

Total amount of motion that is available at a joint

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What is the ROM for shoulder flexion?

180 degrees

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What is the ROM for shoulder abduction?

180 degrees

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What is the ROM for elbow flexion?

145 degrees

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What is the ROM for knee flexion?

135 degrees

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What is active ROM?

Using the musculature, the person moves the joint through the arc as far as possible; it helps to determine the willingness to move, muscle strength, and coordination

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What is passive ROM?

The excursion or arc of the joint when the person is relaxed; it gives information about the integrity of the joint, and it is generally more than active ROM

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What is the "end feel"?

The characteristic "feel" that limits the ROM; it can be normal (soft tissues approximation, ligamentous, and bony) or abnormal (usually associated with pain)

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What are contraindications to ROM Test?

Dislocation or unhealed fracture and it can occur immediately after surgery with unhealed tissues

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What is intra-rater reliability?

It determines how well the same person can take a measurement, time and time again

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What is antomy?

The structure of body parts and their relationships to one another

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What is physiology?

How the body parts function to perform life-sustaining activities also known as physiological processes

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What is the saying referencing both function and structure?

Function always reflects structure

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From least to greatest, what are the levels of structural organization?

chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism

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What is gross anatomy?

The study of structures that can be seen without a microscope

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What is the integumentary system and what is its function?

Skin and its appendages, including hair and nails. It provides protection and external support, maintains water, and cools the body, it is the largest human body system

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What is the skeletal system?

It provides internal support and produces blood cells

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What is the muscular system?

It is involved in human movement and it produces body heat

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What is the nervous system?

It controls the muscular system and it is involved in the processes of learning and memorization

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What is the endocrine system?

It uses hormonal secretions for chemical regulation

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What is the cardiovascular system?

It encompasses the blood, heart, arteries, and veins

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