Cardiovascular System

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major function

transportation of nutrients and oxygen

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transport vehicle

blood

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heart

muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body

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blood vessels

tubelike structures that carry blood throughout the body

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vascular system

blood circulating inside blood vessels

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arteries

carry blood away from heart

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veins

drain tissues and return blood to heart

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capillaries

extend & branch through tissues and connect smallest arteries to smallest veins

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aorta

largest artery in body

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vena cava

largest vein in the body

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atrioventricular valves (AV valves)

located between atrium & ventricles on each side

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semilunar valves

guards the bases of the two large arteries leaving the ventricular chambers

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incompetent valves

forces the heart to pump/re-pump the same blood back because the valves do not close properly and blood back-flows

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pulmonary circulation

circulation from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart

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systemic circulation

second circuit from left side of heart thru body tissues and back to right side of heart

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autonomic nervous system

acts like brakes and gas pedals to decrease or increase heart rate depending on which division is activated

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intrinsic conduction system

built into the heart tissue and sets its basic rhythm--> composed of a special tissue found nowhere else in the body

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cardiac cycle

The events of one complete heartbeat

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cardiac output

amount of blood pumped out by each side of heart in one minute

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stroke volume

volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each heartbeat

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vascular system

blood circulating inside blood vessels; closed transport system

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vital signs

pulse

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pulse

Beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries.

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blood pressure

the pressure that is exerted by the blood against the walls of blood vessels

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systolic pressure

the pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular contraction

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diastolic pressure

The pressure that remains in the arteries during the relaxing phase of the heart's cycle (diastole) when the left ventricle is at rest.

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peripheral resistance

the opposition to flow that blood encounters in vessels away from the heart

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pericarditis

inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart

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incompetent valve

forces the heart to pump and repump the same blood because the valve does not close properly and blood backflows

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valvular stenosis

the valve flaps become stiff

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angina pectoris

crushing chest pain

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myocardial infarction

heart attack

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ischemia

lack of adequate blood supply to the heart muscle

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fibrillation

a rapid

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tachycardia

rapid heart rate (over 100 beats per minute)

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bradycardia

heart rate less than 60 beats per minute

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heart murmur

abnormal or unusual heart sounds

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congestive heart failure

-pumping of heart is progressively impaired -Cardiac output cannot meet body needs

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varicose veins

abnormally swollen

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thrombophlebitis

Inflammation of a vein that results when a clot forms in a vessel with poor circulation

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hypotension

low blood pressure

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orthostatic hypotension

temporary low BP and dizziness when suddenly rising from a sitting or reclining position

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circulatory shock

a condition in which the blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally

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hypertension

persistent high blood pressure; sustained pressure of 140/90 or higher

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congenital heart defects

structural abnormalities caused by the failure of the heart to develop normally before birth

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apex

pointed inferior tip of heart

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base

broad posterosuperior aspect of heart

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pericardium

double walled sac that encloses heart

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fibrous pericardium

loosely fitting superficial part of the pericardium

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serous pericardium

slippery

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epicardium

part of heart wall

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