Bio Exam 1

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Correctly sequence memory fixation starting with the stimulus from the environment?

I. Encoding to short term memory

II. Long term potentiation

III. Sensory memory storage

IV. Long-term memory storage

a.) I->IV->II->III

b.) IV->I->III->II

c.) III->I->IV->II

d.) I->IV->III->II

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141 Terms

1

Correctly sequence memory fixation starting with the stimulus from the environment?

I. Encoding to short term memory

II. Long term potentiation

III. Sensory memory storage

IV. Long-term memory storage

a.) I->IV->II->III

b.) IV->I->III->II

c.) III->I->IV->II

d.) I->IV->III->II

c.) III->I->IV->II

(sensory memory stage -> encoding to short term memory -> long-term memory stage -> long term potentiation)

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2

According to what is known about long term potentiation and memory formation, which of the following are the best ways to prepare each week for workshop?

I. Read the lecture notes several times

II. Attend reviews and actively take notes while watching lecture

III. Make your own organizers for each of the outcomes

IV. Retype the notes several times and bring your laptop to workshop

V. Participate in study groups in which students teach each other the material from lecture

a.) I,III, and V

b.) II, III, and V

c.) II, III, and IV

d.) I, II, and III

b.) II, III, and V

(attend reviews and actively take notes while watching lecture, make your own organizers for each of the outcomes, and participate in study groups in which students teach each other the material from lecture)

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3

A brain injury results in the inability to recall old memories, but new memories can be formed. Hypothesize which process was most likely affected.

a.) Encoding from LTM to STM

b.) Retrieval from STM to LTM

c.) Retrieval from LTM to STM

d.) Encoding from STM to LTM

c.) retrieval from LTM to STM

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4

Compare and contrast long-term and short-term memory. Which of the follow are TRUE?

I. Long-term memory is limited in capacity

II. Both are longer in duration than sensory memory storage

III. Short-term memory is unlimited in capacity

IV. Long-term memory is unlimited in duration

a.) I, II, and III

b.) I and III

c.) II and IV

d.) I and IV

c.) II and IV

(both are longer in duration than sensory memory stage and long-term memory is unlimited in duration)

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5

The transfer of information from short term memory to long term memory is called

a.) encoding

b.) plasticity

c.) remodeling

d.) stimulation

a.) encoding

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6

Identify which of the following terms describes changes occurring at synapses that cause an increase in synaptic transmission.

a.) encoding

b.) long term potentiation

c.) neuronal plasticity

d.) retrieval

b.) long term potentiation

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7

Identify which statement best describes the term "chunking" with respect to learning.

a.) Learning sets of related information

b.) Going to several lectures in one day

c.) Organizing the lecture notes alphabetically

d.) Studying several hours in one day

a.) learning sets of related information

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8

Within a single water molecule, a hydrogen forms a ___________ bond with an atom of ____________.

a.) polar covalent, hydrogen

b.) polar covalent, oxygen

c.) hydrogen bond, hydrogen

d.) hydrogen bond, oxygen

b.) polar covalent, oxygen

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9

Compare and contrast chemical bonds. Which statement(s) correctly describe(s) BOTH polar covalent bonds and ionic bonds?

I. Result in the sharing of electrons

II. Always result in an electrically charge molecule

III. Require the involvement of a water molecule

IV. Are interactions involving electrons

a.) I and II

b.) III only

c.) IV only

d.) II, III, and IV

c.) IV only

(are interactions involving electrons)

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10

Identify which of the following is an example of emergence.

a.) A bicycle can be broken down into small mechanical parts

b.) A water molecule has polarity

c.) Cells can be broken down into organelles and molecules

d.) The mass of a large molecule is the sum of the mass of its atoms

b.) a water molecule has polarity

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11

Identify which of the following is/are TRUE about excited electrons?

I. The charge becomes positive

II. They move away from the atom's nucleus

III. They have higher kinetic energy

IV. They have higher potential energy

a.) I and III

b.) II and IV

c.) I and II

d.) III and IV

b.) II and IV

(they move away from the atom's nucleus and they have higher potential energy)

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12

Which of the following interactions are ONLY intramolecular attractions?

I. polar covalent bonds

II. hydrogen bonds

III. nonpolar covalent bonds

IV. ionic bonds

a.) III and IV

b.) II and IV

c.) I and II

d.) I and III

d.) I and III

( polar covalent bonds and non polar covalent bonds)

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13

What is the CORRECT order of the stages of investigating if grass grows faster in July than in August?

I. Grow 10 different plots of grass and measure their rate of growth and moisture for the months of July and August

II. The hypothesis is supported

III. Predict that grass grows significantly faster when the soil has higher moisture

IV. The observation is that grass grows faster in July than August

V. The hypothesis is that the grass grows faster in July because the soil has more moisture than in August

a.) V->II->III->IV->I

b.) IV->V->III->I->II

c.) V->IV->III->II->I

d.) IV->V->I->III->II

b.) IV->V->III->I->II

( The observation is that grass grows faster in July than August ->The hypothesis is that the grass grows faster in July because the soil has more moisture than in August -> Predict that grass grows significantly faster when the soil has higher moisture -> Grow 10 different plots of grass and measure their rate of growth and moisture for the months of July and August -> The hypothesis is supported)

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14

Compare and contrast emergent properties of water. Which of the following result from attractions between water molecules?

a.) Ice is more dense that liquid water

b.) Water moves by osmosis

c.) Water is a polar molecule

d.) Cohesion results in surface tension

d.) cohesion results in surface tension

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15

Hypothesize what kind of bond is most likely to form between two atoms with a very small difference in electronegativity.

a.) hydrogen

b.) covalent

c.) ionic

d.) peptide

b.) covalent

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16

Compare and contrast functional groups. What properties are shared between carbonyl and hydroxyl groups?

a.) are charged

b.) contain nitrogen

c.) are polar

d.) contain carbon bound to hydrogen

c.) are polar

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17

Identify which of the following statements correctly described hydrolysis.

a.) Used to make polysaccharides

b.) Endergonic

c.) Results in peptide bonds

d.) Breaks down polymers

d.) breaks down polymers

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18

Hypothesize how changing the R group on a molecule from a methyl group to a hydroxyl group would change the properties of a short hydrocarbon.

I. Becomes hydrophilic

II. Becomes acidic

III. Becomes hydrophobic

IV. Can form hydrogen bonds

a.) III and IV

b.) I and IV

c.) II and III

d.) I and II

c.) II and III

(becomes acidic and becomes hydrophobic)

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19

As you sleep all night your blood sugar drops, this triggers the release of glucagon from your pancreas. Glucagon is a hormone that then triggers the release of sugar from your liver. For the sugar to be released, the following reaction must take place in your liver:

This is an example of a/an

a.) hydrogen bond

b.) hydrolysis

c.) glycosidic linkage

d.) dehydration synthesis

b.) hydrolysis

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20

Identify which of the following is/are TRUE about hydrocarbon chains?

I. They can diffuse through a plasma membrane

II. They contain a ration of 1C to 2H to 1 Oxygen

III. They are usually non-polar

IV. They are biological monomers

a.) I and III

b.) II and IV

c.) III only

d.) I and II

a.) I and III

(they can diffuse through a plasma membrane and they are usually non-polar)

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21

Identify which functional group is primarily responsible for the hydrophilic nature of the primary molecules of plasma membranes.

a.) methyl group

b.) phosphate group

c.) hydroxyl group

d.) carboxyl group

b.) phosphate group

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22

Identify which of the following statements is/are TRUE with regard to protein structure.

I. Formation of primary structure is spontaneous

II. Alpha helices are an example of tertiary structure

III. Tertiary structure involves interactions between R groups

IV. Primary structure is the sequence of amino acids in a protein

a.) IV only

b.) IV and V

c.) I and III

d.) III and IV

d.) III and IV

( Tertiary structure involves interactions between R groups and Primary structure is the sequence of amino acids in a protein)

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23

Compare and contrast biological molecules. Which of the following statements correctly describes BOTH of the pictured molecules?

I. Produced as the result of a hydrolysis reaction between monomers

II. Requires the addition of a water molecule to break it into its monomers

III. It is a hydrocarbon

IV. It can interact with water molecules

a.) II and IV

b.) II, III, and IV

c.) I and II

d.) I and III

a.) II and IV

( requires the addition of a water molecules to break it into its monomers and it can interact with water molecules)

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24

Analysis of ancient rocks has shown that the atmosphere of early Earth was very low in free oxygen (O2) and that simple organic compounds probably accumulated in shallow water. Which of the following does this support?

a.) Serial endosymbiosis

b.) Iron-sulfur world hypothesis

c.) Oparin-Haldane hypothesis

d.) RNA world hypothesis

c.) Oparin-Haldane hypothesis

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25

In which pair do BOTH terms CORRECTLY describes the earliest cellular life?

a.) autotroph, prokaryote

b.) aerobe, eukaryote

c.) prokaryote, heterotroph

d.) predator, eukaryote

c.) prokaryotes, heterotroph

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26

Which of the following are requirements for the abiotic synthesis of organic monomers?

I. Inorganic building blocks like CO2 and H2

II. Atmospheric oxygen

III. Protein enzymes

IV. An energy source

a.) I, II, and IV

b.) II and III

c.) I and IV

d.) I, II, and III

c.) I and IV

(Inorganic building blocks like CO2 and H2 and an energy source)

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27

You are swimming in the ocean an encounter a small structure. When you take it back to the lab you find that it is compromised of organic phosphate and hydrocarbons forming a sphere. Inside there are no proteins only some simple sugars and ions. What have you found?

a.) nucleus

b.) prokaryotic cell

c.) protocell

d.) a cell membrane

c.) protocell

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28

Correctly sequence evolutionary developments in the history of life.

I. Prokaryotes

II. Endosymbiosis

III. Photosynthesis

IV. Multicellular eukaryotes

V. Terrestrial animals

a.) III->II->I->IV->V

b.) I->III->II->IV->V

c.) I->II->III->IV->V

d.) III->I->II->IV->V

b.) I->III->II->IV->V

(prokaryotes -> photosynthesis-> endosymbiosis -> multicellular eukaryotes -> terrestrial animals)

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29

Life on Earth did not leave a fossil record until 3.5 bya. Prior to this, scientists have hypothesized that the precursors to cells must have gone through a series of four steps to form a single cell. Correctly sequence the events that occurred prior to the first cells on earth.

I. Formation of macromolecules

II. Formation of protocells

III. Abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules

IV. Self-replicating molecules

a.) II->III->IV->I

b.) III->II->I->IV

c.) III->I->II->IV

d.) I->II->III->IV

c.) III->I->II->IV

(abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules -> formation of macromolecules -> formation of protocells -> self-replicating molecules)

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30

Oxygen is detrimental to the spontaneous formation of organic monomers because it

a.) is an oxidizing agent

b.) requires an enzyme to react with other molecules

c.) increases the rate of peptide bond formation

d.) does not react with existing monomers

a.) is an oxidizing agent

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31

Identify where DNA is found within a bacterium

a.) lysosome

b.) plasma membrane

c.) cytoplasm

d.) nuclear envelope

c.) cytoplasm

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32

Correctly sequence the order in which a hydrolase enzyme passes through the endomembrane system as it is being synthesized and modified.

I. Rough ER

II. Golgi Apparatus

III. Secondary lysosome

IV. Primary lysosome

a.) II->I->IV->III

b.) I->II->IV->III

c.) III->IV->II->I

d.) IV->III->I->II

b.) I->II->IV->III

(rough ER -> Golgi apparatus-> primary lysosome -> secondary lysosome)

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33

Compare and contrast the domains of life. Which contain(s) cells with an endomembrane system?

I. Archaea

II. Bacteria

III. Eukarya

a.) II and III

b.) I only

c.) III only

d.) I and II

c.) III only

(Eukarya)

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34

You are studying a poison that inhibits the formation of vesicles by the endoplasmic reticulum. Hypothesize which of the following steps in protein transport with NOT occur as a result of a cell being exposes to this poison.

I. Tertiary folding of the polypeptide

II. Exocytosis of the protein

III. Synthesis of ribosomes

IV. Formation of peptide bonds

V. Protein modification in Golgi apparatus

a.) II, III, and V

b.) II and V

c.) I, IV, and V

d.) II only

b.) II and V

( exocytosis of the protein and protein modification in Golgi apparatus)

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35

Compare and contrast protocells and living cells. Which of the following are characteristics shared by BOTH?

I. Growth followed by division

II. Osmotic swelling

III. Internal environment different from external environment

IV. Information storage and transmission

a.) I, II, and III

b.) I, II, III, and IV

c.) II, III, and IV

d.) III and IV

a.) I, II, and III

(growth followed by division, osmotic swelling, and internal environment different from external environment)

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36

Identify which of the following structures catalyzes the formation of peptide bonds?

a.) Golgi apparatus

b.) Endoplasmic reticulum

c.) Ribosomes

d.) Nucleus

c.) ribosomes

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37

Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Which structure are found in BOTH types of cells?

I. Nucleoid

II. Ribosomes

III. DNA

IV. Plasma membrane

V. Proteins

a.) I, III, and IV

b.) II, III, IV, and V

c.) III and V

d.) I, II, and IV

b.) II, III, IV, and V

( ribosomes, DNA, plasma membrane, and proteins)

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38

A researcher is able to use a radioactive marker to label the phospholipids in the membrane of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. She is also able to track the movement of the marker through the cell. If the cell is functioning normally, hypothesize in which cell structures these labeled phospholipids could eventually be found?

I. ribosomes

II. nucleus

III. Golgi apparatus

IV. lysosomes

a.) I and III

b.) II, III, and IV

c.) II, III, and IV

d.) II and III

c.) II, III, and IV

(nucleus, Golgi apparatus, and lysosomes)

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39

Identify which of the following is a characteristics of the nuclear envelope?

a.) Separates nucleus from cytoplasm

b.) Is only present in prokaryotes

c.) Contains structures involved in protein synthesis

d.) Synthesizes ribosomes

a.) separates nucleus from cytoplasm

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40

Two solutions that are separated by a membrane are at dynamic equilibrium. Water molecules can cross the membrane, but solute molecules cannot. Which statement correctly describes this scenario?

a. ) One solution is hypotonic and the other is hypertonic

b.) Water molecules move in both directions across the membrane

c.) Both solutions are hypertonic

d.) There is no movement occurring across the membrane

b.) water molecules move in both directions across the membrane

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41

Identify which of the following move substances BOTH across a membrane and AGAINST the concentration gradient?

a.) proton (H+)

b.) phagocytosis

c.) exocytosis

d.) facilitated diffusion

a.) proton (H+)

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42

The bulk transport of large molecules by cells

a.) occurs in prokaryotes, but not in eukaryotes

b.) always depends on the input of energy by the cell

c.) is a type of facilitated diffusion

d.) always results in the movement of materials into the cell

b.) always depends on the input of energy by the cell

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43

A solution that surrounds a cell and causes it to lose water is:

a.) hypertonic

b.) isotonic

c.) hypotonic

d.) osmotic

a.) hypertonic

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44

Which of the following are UNABLE to move through a phospholipid bilayer via simple diffusion?

a.) Large polar molecules like glucose

b.) Nonpolar gasses like CO2

c.) Small polar molecules like H2O

d.) Hydrocarbons

a.) large polar molecules like glucose

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45

Identify which of the following types of membrane transport are specific.

I. Exocytosis

II. Pinocytosis

III. Facilitated diffusion via ion channels

IV. Simple diffusion

V. Receptor-mediated endocytosis

a.) IV and V

b.) II, III, and V

c.) I and III

d.) III and V

d.) III and V

( facilitated diffusion via ion channels and receptor-mediated endocytosis)

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46

Hypothesize which of the following membrane functions would be interrupted if all transmembrane proteins were removed from the plasma membrane

I. Active transport

II. Signal transduction

III. Facilitated diffusion

IV. Simple diffusion

a.) I, II, and III

b.) II, III, and IV

c.) I and II

d.) II and IV

a.) I, II, and III

( active transport, signal transduction, and facilitated diffusion)

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47

Identify the types of lipids that are the primary component of the cell membrane

a.) Triglycerides

b.) Phospholipids

c.) Saturated fats

d.) Cholesterol

b.) phospholipids

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48

Identify which statement correctly describes ATP

a.) its main components are a lipid and 3 phosphate groups

b.) it stores potential energy in bonds between phosphate groups

c.) its hydrolysis is an endergonic reaction

d.) its hydrolysis is coupled to exergonic reactions

b.) it stores potential energy in bonds between phosphate groups

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49

Which of the following are TRUE about this reaction?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + E ( in the form of ATP)

I. anabolic

II. catabolic

III. exergonic

IV. endergonic

V. +Delta G

a.) I, IV, and V

b.) II and III

c.) I and IV

d.) I and III

b.) II and III

(catabolic and exergonic)

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50

Compare and contrast anabolism and catabolism. Which of the following statements are TRUE?

I. Catabolic reactions build complex molecules

II. Anabolic reactions build complex molecules

III. Anabolic reactions require energy

IV. Catabolic reactions release energy

a.) I,III, and IV

b.) II and IV

c.) II, III, and IV

d.) II and III

c.) II, III, and IV

(anabolic reactions build complex molecules, anabolic reactions require energy, and catabolic reactions release energy)

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51

Identify which of the following functional groups is removed from ATP to drive endergonic reactions?

a.) + CH2

b.) -OPO3 ^ 2+

c.) -COOH

d.) -OH

b.) -OPO3^2+

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52

Which of the following best describes free energy?

a.) energy lost has heat

b.) disorder in a system

c.) energy in motion

d.) energy available to do work

d.) energy available to do work

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53

In a redox reactions:

I. the molecule that is oxidized gains an electron(s)

II. at least one free electron is released into the solution

III. the molecule that is reduced gains an electron(s)

a.) I only

b.) III only

c.) I and III

d.) II only

b.) III only

(the molecule that is reduced gains an electron (s))

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54

An enzyme that catalyzes an exergonic reaction has been treated with an irreversible inhibitor. Hypothesize how the reaction will change compared to before the inhibitor was introduction.

a.) Delta G will change from negative to positive

b.) Delta G will change from positive to negative

c.) The activation energy will be higher

d.) The activation energy will be lower

c.) the activation energy will be higher

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55

A gene for a human enzyme (body temperature of 37 degrees Celsius) is inserted into a bacterium that lives in a hot spring (77 degrees Celsius). Hypothesize how this enzyme's activity will change

a.) it will be unaffected

b.) denature and stop working

c.) operate faster at higher temperature

operate slower due to higher temperature

b.) denature and stop working

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56

Identify which of the following is the SOURCE of electrons during photosynthesis?

a.) O2

b.) CO2

c.) H2O

d.) C6H12O6

c.) H2O

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57

Sequence photosynthesis. During the Calvin cycle, electrons move:

a.) from the stroma to the thylakoid space

b.) from CO2 to a sugar

c.) from NADPH to G3P

d.) from ATP to NADPH

c.) from NADPH to G3P

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58

Correctly sequence the events that occur during photosynthesis

I. Energy used to synthesize ATP

II. Electron moves to a higher energy orbital

III. Energy absorbed from a photon

IV. Electron leaves an atom and is captured by an acceptor

a.) III->IV->II->I

b.) II->III->I->IV

c.) III->II->IV->I

d.) I->III->II->IV

c.) III-> II->IV->I

(energy is absorbed from a photon -> electron moves to a higher energy orbital-> electron leaves an atom and is captured by an acceptor-> energy used synthesize ATP)

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59

Identify which of the following is TRUE for photosynthesis

a.) Oxygen is a reactant

b.) Overall, it is an exergonic reaction

c.) Carbon dioxide is a reactant

d.) The overall free energy change is negative

c.) Carbon dioxide is a reactant

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60

Identify the main source of energy that excited the electrons during photosynthesis

a.) C6H12O6

b.) ATP

c.) NADPH

d.) light

d.) light

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61

Where does the carbon used in photosynthesis come from?

a.) CO2 in the air

b.) CO in the air

c.) Carbon compounds in the soil

d.) Glucose stored in roots

a.) CO2 in the air

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62

Compare and contrast photosynthesis and aerobic cellular respiration. Which of the following statements are TRUE for BOTH?

I. Water is reduced and organic carbon is oxidized

II. They are anabolic reactions

III. On net, ATP is produced

IV. Chemiosmosis occurs

a.) I and II

b.) II and III

c.) IV only

d.) I, II, and III

c.) IV only

(chemiosmosis occurs)

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63

Identify which molecule is oxidized during glycolysis

a.) glucose

b.) oxygen

c.) water

d.) NAD+

a.) glucose

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64

How is O2 used by a plant cell?

a.) during respiration as the terminal electron acceptor

b.) as the terminal electron acceptor during photosynthesis

c.) as an electron carrier during the light dependent reactions

d.) plant cells do not require O2

a.) during respiration as the terminal electron acceptor

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65

Compare and contrast aerobic respiration and photosynthesis. Which of the following occur during BOTH?

I. Protons are pumped across a membrane

II. ATP are produced

III. Electrons move down an electron transport chain

IV. Energy is converted from one form to another

V. Protons (H+) diffuse through ATP synthase

a.) II, IV and V

b.) I, II, III, IV and V

c.) I, II, and IV

d.) I, II, and III

b.) I, II, III, IV, and V

( Protons are pumped across a membrane, ATP are produced, electrons move down an electron transport chain, energy is converted from one form to another, and Protons (H+) diffuse through ATP synthase)

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66

Glucose enters into a eukaryotic cell through an integral protein that is embedded into the cell's plasma membrane. This protein, called GLUT 1, moves high levels of glucose into the cell through facilitated diffusion. How many ATP are required to move on glucose molecule into a eukaryotic cell?

a.) 28

b.) 2

c.) 4

d.) 0

d.) 0

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67

Sequence cellular respiration. NAD+ is reduced during

I. Glycolysis

II. Pyruvate oxidation

III. The Citric Acid Cycle

IV. Oxidative Phosphorylation

a.) I, II, and III

b.) I, II, III, and IV

c.) IV only

d.) II and IV

a.) I, II, and III

(Glycolysis, Pyruvate oxidation, and The Citric Acid Cycle)

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68

Sequence cellular respiration. During cellular respiration which of the following molecule(s) is/are reduced?

I. Glucose

II. FAD

III. Carbon dioxide

IV. ATP

V. O2

a.) II and V

b.) I only

c.) I, III, and IV

d.) II, IV, and V

a.) II and V

(FAD and O2)

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69

Identify where the electron transport chain is located in animal cells.

a.) outer mitochondrial membrane

b.) inner mitochondrial membrane

c.) plasma membrane

d.) endoplasmic reticulum

b.) inner mitochondrial membrane

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70

Which of the following is the ultimate destination for electrons in aerobic respiration?

a.) H2O

b.) ATP

c.) Glucose

d.) CO2

a.) H2O

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71

Fluidity depends on:

a.) Temperature (the higher the temperature the more fluidity the chain is going to be)

b.) Chain Length ( the fewer the chains the more fluid there is going to be and the opposite for more chains)

c.) Saturation (unsaturated versus saturated hydrocarbons tails)

- unsaturated tails prevent packing

- saturated tails pack together

d.) Cholesterol within the animal cell membrane

- It does the opposite of temperature ( at higher temperatures where it would be the fluid the cholesterol is going to make it a more rigid structure. But when its cold the cholesterol will become less rigid and more fluid.)

- Cholesterol reduces membrane fluidity at moderate temperatures, but at low temperature hinders solidification

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72

The ability of the human brain to form new connections throughout life is termed:

a.) encoding

b.) stimulation

c.) excitation

d.) neuronal plasticity

D.) neuronal plasticity

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73

Identify which of the following correctly describes the process of establishing long term potentiation

a.) repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to long term memory

b.) reading and listening cause short term memory use

c.) actively using a memory makes it easier to recall

d.) information is short-term memory is released after a short time

C.) Actively using a memory makes it easier to recall

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74

Identify what is meant by the term "chunking" with respect to learning.

a.) Associating several concepts or facts together

b.) writing notes in two or more colors

c.) studying in large time blocks

d.) listing all of vocabulary by lecture topic

A.) Associating several concepts or facts together

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75

Correctly sequence the following steps of the process of memory formation

I. Long-term memory

II. Stimulus received

III. Short-term memory

IV. Encoding

a.) IV -> II -> III -> I

b.) II -> III -> IV -> I

c.) III -> II -> I -> IV

d.) III -> I -> II -> IV

B.) II -> III -> IV -> I

( Stimulus received -> short-term memory -> encoding -> long-term memory)

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76

Identify which of the following practices is most likely to promote long term potentiation.

a.) recreating a flowchart from memory

b.) repeatedly reading a section of the textbook

c.) taking notes during class

d.) recording a lecture and listening to it again

A.) Recreating a flowchart from memory

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77

Identify which of the following is an example of emergence

a.) A car can be broken down into small mechanical parts

b.) Cells can be broken down into organelles and molecules

c.) A water molecule has polarity absent from O or H alone

d.) The mass of a larger molecule is the sum of the mass of its atoms

C.) A water molecule has polarity absent from O or H alone

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78

Correctly sequence the steps in stimulating Long Term Potentiation (LTP) for a student in General Biology

I. Attending lecture and taking active notes

II. Organizing the material into chunks

III. Practice created organizers and discussing

IV. Reevaluating your organizers

a.) I -> II -> III -> IV

b.) I -> IV -> III -> II

c.) III -> I -> II -> IV

d.) III -> I -> IV -> II

A.) I -> II -> III -> IV

( Attending lecture and taking active notes -> organizing the material into chunks -> practice created organizers and discussing -> reevaluating your organizers)

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79

Hypothesize at which of the following levels of biological hierarchy the property of heredity emerges

a.) ecosystems

b.) population

c.) tissues

d.) cell

D.) cell

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80

Sequence the scientific method. You've just developed a novel hypothesis. What do you do next?

a.) collect background information

b.) make predictions and test them experimentally

c.) make an observation and ask a question

d.) revise and repeat your experiment

B.) make predictions and test them experimentally

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81

Place the following levels of biological organization into hierarchal order, from most inclusive to least inclusive

I. tissue

II. organism

III. cell

IV. organelle

a.) II -> III -> I-> IV

b.) IV -> III -> II -> I

c.) II -> I -> III -> IV

d.) II -> I -> IV -> III

C.) II -> I -> III -> IV

( organism -> tissue -> cell -> organelle)

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82

Chemical bonds within a molecule are the result of:

a.) how atoms share or move electrons

b.) the interaction of the protons within different atoms

c.) the interaction of photons and electrons

d.) how electronegativity is transferred from one atom to another

A.) how atoms share or move electrons

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83

Identify which of the following statements is TRUE for a hydrophilic substance.

a.) it will form hydrogen bonds with water molecules

b.) is neither charged nor polar

c.) is a likely a hydrocarbon

d.) will not dissolve in water

A.) it will form hydrogen bonds with water molecules

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84

Identify which of the following is an emergent property of water

a.) its molecular mass of 18 Daltons

b.) it is compromised of hydrogen and oxygen

c.) the oxygen is very electronegative

d.) a body of water has high surface tension

D.) a body of water has high surface tension

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85

Within a single water molecule, a hydrogen forms a _________ bond with an atom of ________.

a.) polar covalent, oxygen

b.) hydrogen bond, hydrogen

c.) hydrogen bond, oxygen

d.) polar covalent, hydrogen

A.) Polar covalent, oxygen

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86

Compare and contrast chemical bonds. Which statement(s) correctly describe(s) BOTH polar covalent bonds and ionic bonds?

I. Result in the equal sharing of electrons

II. Always result in an electricity charged molecule

III. Require the involvement of a water molecule

IV. Are interactions involving electrons

a.) III only

b.) IV only

c.) I and II

d.) II, III, and IV

B.) IV only

(Are interactions involving electrons)

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87

Identify which functional group contributed to the amphipathic nature of the primary molecule in plasma membranes

a.) phosphate group

b.) sulfhydryl group

c.) amino group

d.) carbonyl group

A.) Phosphate group

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88

Compare and contrast biological molecules. Which of the following correctly pair bonds that link monomers with the biological macromolecules in which they are found?

I. Glycosidic linkages, polysaccharides

II. amino linkages, lipids

III. ionic bonds, nucleic acids

IV. peptide bonds, proteins

a.) I and IV

b.) I and III

c.) II, III, and IV

d.) II and III

A.) I and IV

( Glycosidic linkages, polysaccharides and peptide bones, proteins)

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89

Identify which of the following are functions of lipids.

a.) membrane structure and catalyzes digestion

b.) energy storage and membrane structure

c.) catalyzes reactions and provides membrane transport

d.) heredity and cell wall structure

B.) energy storage and membrane structure

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90

Identify which of the following statements correctly described hydrolysis

a.) breaks down polymers

b.) endergonic

c.) used to make polysaccharides

d.) results in peptide bonds

A.) breaks down polymers

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91

Compare and contrast biological molecules. Which of the following statements are TRUE for BOTH of the pictured molecules?

I. A type of amino acid

II. Amphipathic

III. Hydrophilic

IV. Monomer

V. A type of polymer

a.) I, III, and V

b.) III and IV

c.) II and V

d.) I and IV

B.) III and IV

(hydrophilic and monomer)

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92

Identify which functional group is basic

a.) amino

b.) carbonyl

c.) carboxyl

d.) methyl

A.) Amino

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93

Compare and contrast functional groups. Which of the following functional groups is/are acidic?

I. -COOH

II. -NH2

III. -PO4H2

IV. -CH3

a.) I, III, and IV

b.) I and III

c.) I only

d.) III only

B.) I and III

(-COOH and -PO4H2)

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94

Sequence levels of protein folding. Which level(s) of protein folding result from the spontaneous formation of hydrogen bonds between the amino and carboxyl groups of non-adjacent amino acids across short distance in the polypeptide?

I. Primary

II. Secondary

III. tertiary

IV. Quaternary

a.) II only

b.) III and IV

c.) II, III, and IV

d.) I only

A.) II only

(Secondary)

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95

You collect a sample of ocean water. When you take it back to the lab you find that it contains structures comprised of organic phosphate and hydrocarbons forming a sphere. Inside there are no proteins only some simple sugars and ions. Hypothesize what you have found.

a.) cell membranes

b.) a nucleus

c.) prokaryotic cells

d.) protocells

D.) Protocells

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96

Identify which of the following are requirements for the abiotic synthesis of organic monomers

I. Inorganic building blocks like CO2 and H2

II. Atmospheric free oxygen

III. Protein enzymes

IV. An energy source

a.) I, II, and III

b.) I and IV

c.) I, II, and IV

d.) II and III

B.) I and IV

(inorganic building blocks like CO2 and H2 and an energy source)

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97

Identify which of the following steps in abiogenesis coincide with the evolution of photosystem II (PSII) used in photosynthesis?

a.) synthesis of polymers

b.) formation of monosaccharides

c.) anerobic bacterium

d.) oxygen revolution

D.) oxygen revolution

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98

Identify which of the following organisms originated from endosymbiosis

a.) eukaryotic cells

b.) anerobic bacteria

c.) prokaryotes

d.) autotrophs

A.) eukaryotic cells

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99

Sequence abiogenesis and the history of life. Which of the following would NOT have occurred without the formation of protocells?

I. monomers of RNA

II. polypeptide chains

III. anerobic bacteria

IV. aerobic organisms

a.) I and II

b.) II and IV

c.) III and IV

d.) II, III, and IV

C.) III and IV

(anerobic bacteria and aerobic organisms)

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100

Identify which of the following best described the abiotic formation of biological macromolecules

a.) spontaneous

b.) enzyme-catalyzed

c.) driven by ATP

d.) required for monomer production

A.) spontaneous

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