Pathophysiology Exam 1

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Etiology

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124 Terms

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Etiology

Study of causes and risk factors of disease

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Pathogenesis

How does the etiology express itself in disease

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Clinical Manifestations

Signs and symptoms Stages of clinical course: Latent versus Subclinical

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latent

hidden, present but not realized

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subclinical

without showing signs of disease

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Acute clinical course

short-lived; may have severe manifestation

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Chronic clinical course

may last months to years, sometimes following an acute course

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8

Exacerbation

increase in the severity of a disease or its symptoms;

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9

Remission

decrease in severity, signs, or symptoms; may indicate disease is cured

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Convalescence

stage of recovery after a disease, injury, or surgical procedure

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11

Sequela

subsequent pathologic condition resulting from an acute illness

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12

Epidemiology

the study of patterns of disease in populations, including risk factors

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Endemic disease

Spreaded within a local region

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14

Epidemic disease

Spread to many people at the same time

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15

Pandemic

Spread to large geographic areas (worldwide)

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16

Aggregate Factors / Epidemiologic variables

Factors such as: age, ethnic group, gender, lifestyle considerations, geographic location

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17

Function of cytoskeleton

Maintains cell shape and allows cell movement. It directs traffic of substances in the cell.

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18

Nucleus

Control center of the cell; aka the brain of the cell

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19

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Specializes in synthesis, folding, and transport of protein and lipid components of most organelles.

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Golgi Apparatus

Processing and packaging proteins into secretory vesicles

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21

Lysosomes and peroxisomes

Digests lipids and proteins; They are released during cell injury

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Mitochondria

Place of processes; ATP

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Cellular metabolism

all of the chemical tasks of maintaining essential cellular functions

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Anabolism

The energy using process of metabolism that synthesizes complex molecules

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Catabolism

Energy releasing process

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Plasma membrane

Structure is made of lipid bilayer; Transports lipid soluble molecules

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27

Endocytosis

Cellular ingestion of extracellular molecules; process by which cells absorb external material by engulfing it with the cell membrane

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Exocytosis

Cellular secretion

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Mitosis

Responsible for proliferation of body cells in which little genetic variation is needed

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Meiosis

A more elaborate cellular division in germ cells where significant chromosomal rearrangement occurs

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Ischemia

Lack of blood supply

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Example of ischemia

stroke, heart attack

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Hypoxic injury

Not enough oxygen to tissues

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Example of hypoxic injury

high elevation, respiratory distress, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

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35

Nutritional injury

Poor intake, altered absorption, impaired distribution, inefficient cellular uptake of essential nutrients

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Example of nutritional injury

Eating disorders, diabetes, dehydration, high sodium, cramping, alcoholism

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37

Infectious and immunologic injury

Bacteria or viruses; body attacking itself

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Example of infectious and immunologic injury

covid, c.diff, hiv

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Chemical injury

Toxic chemicals or poisons can cause cellular injury both indirectly and by becoming metabolized into reactive chemicals by the body

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Examples of chemical injury

Chemical burns, chemotherapy, alcoholism, normal occurring chemicals in the body (calcium, sodium, etc)

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Physical and mechanical injury

causing injury to skeletal or injury to organs and system

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Examples of physical and mechanical injury

Getting hit by a car, rolling ankle, jamming finger, fractures, cut, bruises

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43

Neoplasia

Abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth

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44

What is the body's first line of defense?

Immunity; skin, mucous membranes, phagocyte system

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45

What do enzymes and lysozymes do?

protect the cell wall; sebaceous glands possess lactic acid which kill fungi; earwax, saliva, mucus

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46

What happens to the normal microbiome with prolonged treatment of broad spectrum antibiotics?

All the microbiome dies; yeast infection could occur

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47

What is the body's second line of defense?

Inflammation

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48

What does inflammation do?

Covers you from injury, trauma, disease

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49

What are caused by inflammation?

Heart disease, lung disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders

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50

What happens when inflammation occurs?

Redness, swelling, heat, loss of function

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51

Pus

Made of dead white blood cells

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52

What are the 3 key plasma protein systems?

Complement, clotting, and kinin

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53

Complement system

Is triggered through enzyme cascade

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54

Clotting system

Cellular proteins that form blood clot when activated; coagulation

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Kinin system

Controls bleeding and bacteria

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Serous discharge

clear drainage such as mucus or plasma

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Serosanguinous discharge

contains blood and plasma; pink colored fluid

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Sanguineous discharge

bloody drainage

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Purulent discharge

Pus; thick, yellowish brown drainage

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What is an exudate?

A mass of cells and fluid that has seeped out of blood vessels or an organ, especially in inflammation.

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4 types of exudates

serous, serosanguinous, sanguineous, purulent

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Acute inflammation

sudden; fever; the body's use of leukocytosis (increase of WBC during infection)

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Chronic inflammation

ongoing stimulus (at least 2 weeks); repetitive cycle; immune helper cells try to do their job of healing but ongoing stimulus results in more cell recruitment

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Examples of acute inflammation

allergic reaction, chemical irritants, infection, trauma injury, burns, laceration, frostbite

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Examples of chronic inflammation

cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, lupus

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66

What is the body's third line of defense?

Adaptive immunity

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Examples of adaptive immunity

the flu; body is forming antibodies to fight; vaccines

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Lymphoid system

Defense against infection and disease

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69

What do natural killer (NK) cells do?

immune cell that kill cells that are infected with a virus

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70

What do B cells and T cells do?

T cells can wipe out infected or cancerous cells. They also direct the immune response by helping B lymphocytes to eliminate invading pathogens. B cells create antibodies.

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71

Hypersensitivity reactions

allergies, autoimmunity, alloimmunity

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What is autoimmunity

body attacks own cells

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Alloimmunity

Type of immunity that produces an immune response against antigens from members of the same species; blood transfusions, transplants, HIV

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Passive immuity

antibodies are given; placenta and breastmilk to a baby

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What are immunoglobulins?

Antibody molecules found in the blood; IgG, IgM, IgE

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IgG

Most abundant antibody; those with Lupus or Graves disease have elevated levels

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IgM

Second most abundant antibody; considered the mounted troops

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IgE

it initiates inflammation response immediately, environmental allergy response

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Examples of an autoimmune disease

Lupus, raynaud's disease, graves disease, sclerosis

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Acquired immunity

immunity that the body develops after it overcomes a disease (vaccines, getting the flu)

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Benign

Does not spread but has potential to become malignant; small, slow growing, noninvasive

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Malignant

Can spread and is harmful; Large, rapidly growing with hemmorhage and necrosis; locally invasive (es muy malo)

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83

Anaplasia

lack of cell differentiation; characteristic of malignant neoplasms

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Metastasis

spread of cancer cells from site of original tumor; (lung cancer can travel to the brain)

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Apoptosis

cell death

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86

Cancer staging

TNM (Tumor, Nodes, Metastasis)

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Predisposing factors and risk factors of cancer

age, tobacco, nutrition, tumors, surgical treatment

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Effects of cancer

pain, anemia, cachexia (weakness) , infection, infertility, alopecia, bone density loss

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Cancer therapy and treatment

Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy

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90

What is the percentage of total body water (TBW) in adults?

60%

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91

What does extracellular fluid include?

Interstitial fluid, intravascular fluid, transcellular fluids

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92

What does transcellular fluid include?

synovial fluid, CSF, GI fluids, pleural fluids, peritoneal fluids, urine

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93

What is osmolality?

The amount of certain substances in blood or urine, such as glucose, urea, and electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride)

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94

what is osmolarity

measure of total concentration of solute particles per liter

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95

Hydrostatic pressure pushes water out of capillaries. What is this called?

Filtration

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96

Osmotic/oncotic pressure pulls water into capillaries. What is this called?

Reabsorption

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97

What happens when there is a deficit of fluid imbalance?

Concentration normal/extracellular fluid is decreased. Fluid shifts OUT OF vasculature. Treatment is fluid replacement.

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98

What happens when there is excess of fluid imbalance?

Concentration normal/extracellular fluid is increased. Fluid shifts INTO vasculature

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99

Hypotonic

Dilute, too much in the cell, push into the cell, swollen, "hippo"

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100

Hypertonic

Concentrated, push out of the cell, not enough in the cell

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