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Study of causes and risk factors of disease
How does the etiology express itself in disease
Signs and symptoms Stages of clinical course: Latent versus Subclinical
hidden, present but not realized
without showing signs of disease
Acute clinical course
short-lived; may have severe manifestation
Chronic clinical course
may last months to years, sometimes following an acute course
increase in the severity of a disease or its symptoms;
decrease in severity, signs, or symptoms; may indicate disease is cured
stage of recovery after a disease, injury, or surgical procedure
subsequent pathologic condition resulting from an acute illness
the study of patterns of disease in populations, including risk factors
Spreaded within a local region
Spread to many people at the same time
Spread to large geographic areas (worldwide)
Aggregate Factors / Epidemiologic variables
Factors such as: age, ethnic group, gender, lifestyle considerations, geographic location
Function of cytoskeleton
Maintains cell shape and allows cell movement. It directs traffic of substances in the cell.
Control center of the cell; aka the brain of the cell
Specializes in synthesis, folding, and transport of protein and lipid components of most organelles.
Processing and packaging proteins into secretory vesicles
Lysosomes and peroxisomes
Digests lipids and proteins; They are released during cell injury
Place of processes; ATP
all of the chemical tasks of maintaining essential cellular functions
The energy using process of metabolism that synthesizes complex molecules
Energy releasing process
Structure is made of lipid bilayer; Transports lipid soluble molecules
Cellular ingestion of extracellular molecules; process by which cells absorb external material by engulfing it with the cell membrane
Responsible for proliferation of body cells in which little genetic variation is needed
A more elaborate cellular division in germ cells where significant chromosomal rearrangement occurs
Lack of blood supply
Example of ischemia
stroke, heart attack
Not enough oxygen to tissues
Example of hypoxic injury
high elevation, respiratory distress, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Poor intake, altered absorption, impaired distribution, inefficient cellular uptake of essential nutrients
Example of nutritional injury
Eating disorders, diabetes, dehydration, high sodium, cramping, alcoholism
Infectious and immunologic injury
Bacteria or viruses; body attacking itself
Example of infectious and immunologic injury
covid, c.diff, hiv
Toxic chemicals or poisons can cause cellular injury both indirectly and by becoming metabolized into reactive chemicals by the body
Examples of chemical injury
Chemical burns, chemotherapy, alcoholism, normal occurring chemicals in the body (calcium, sodium, etc)
Physical and mechanical injury
causing injury to skeletal or injury to organs and system
Examples of physical and mechanical injury
Getting hit by a car, rolling ankle, jamming finger, fractures, cut, bruises
Abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth
What is the body's first line of defense?
Immunity; skin, mucous membranes, phagocyte system
What do enzymes and lysozymes do?
protect the cell wall; sebaceous glands possess lactic acid which kill fungi; earwax, saliva, mucus
What happens to the normal microbiome with prolonged treatment of broad spectrum antibiotics?
All the microbiome dies; yeast infection could occur
What is the body's second line of defense?
What does inflammation do?
Covers you from injury, trauma, disease
What are caused by inflammation?
Heart disease, lung disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders
What happens when inflammation occurs?
Redness, swelling, heat, loss of function
Made of dead white blood cells
What are the 3 key plasma protein systems?
Complement, clotting, and kinin
Is triggered through enzyme cascade
Cellular proteins that form blood clot when activated; coagulation
Controls bleeding and bacteria
clear drainage such as mucus or plasma
contains blood and plasma; pink colored fluid
Pus; thick, yellowish brown drainage
What is an exudate?
A mass of cells and fluid that has seeped out of blood vessels or an organ, especially in inflammation.
4 types of exudates
serous, serosanguinous, sanguineous, purulent
sudden; fever; the body's use of leukocytosis (increase of WBC during infection)
ongoing stimulus (at least 2 weeks); repetitive cycle; immune helper cells try to do their job of healing but ongoing stimulus results in more cell recruitment
Examples of acute inflammation
allergic reaction, chemical irritants, infection, trauma injury, burns, laceration, frostbite
Examples of chronic inflammation
cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, lupus
What is the body's third line of defense?
Examples of adaptive immunity
the flu; body is forming antibodies to fight; vaccines
Defense against infection and disease
What do natural killer (NK) cells do?
immune cell that kill cells that are infected with a virus
What do B cells and T cells do?
T cells can wipe out infected or cancerous cells. They also direct the immune response by helping B lymphocytes to eliminate invading pathogens. B cells create antibodies.
allergies, autoimmunity, alloimmunity
What is autoimmunity
body attacks own cells
Type of immunity that produces an immune response against antigens from members of the same species; blood transfusions, transplants, HIV
antibodies are given; placenta and breastmilk to a baby
What are immunoglobulins?
Antibody molecules found in the blood; IgG, IgM, IgE
Most abundant antibody; those with Lupus or Graves disease have elevated levels
Second most abundant antibody; considered the mounted troops
it initiates inflammation response immediately, environmental allergy response
Examples of an autoimmune disease
Lupus, raynaud's disease, graves disease, sclerosis
immunity that the body develops after it overcomes a disease (vaccines, getting the flu)
Does not spread but has potential to become malignant; small, slow growing, noninvasive
Can spread and is harmful; Large, rapidly growing with hemmorhage and necrosis; locally invasive (es muy malo)
lack of cell differentiation; characteristic of malignant neoplasms
spread of cancer cells from site of original tumor; (lung cancer can travel to the brain)