KINE mock exam questions

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where does the aortic arch begin?

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Mock exam questions

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1

where does the aortic arch begin?

a) clavical \n b) sternal angle \n c) 1st intercostal cartilage \n d) diaphragm

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2

What is the untrue about chemical and mechanical digestion?

a) both break down the food into smaller pieces \n b) mechanical is the physical process of breaking down the food while chemical is uses enzymes \n c) mechanical digestion starts in the mouth while chemical starts in the stomach \n d) salivary amylase helps the process of chemical digestion

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3

What is not a type of transport in the digestive system

a) active transport \n b) facilitated diffusion \n c) simple diffusion \n d) Endocytosis

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4

What is simple diffusion and how is it used in the respiratory system

simple diffusion is the automatic flow of material from an area of high concentration to low concentration and requires no energy. It is used in the respiratory system by the exchange of gases (O2 & CO2) between the alveoli & the blood. O2 diffusing from the alveoli into the blood & CO2 from the blood into the alveoli.

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5

The formed elements in blood are:

a) Erythrocytes, enzymes and leukocytes \n b) Leukocytes, Erythrocytes, Platelets \n c) Plasma, white blood cells and vitamins \n d) Plasma, Platelets, red blood cells

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6

Where does 90% of water absorption occur?

a) Rectum \n b) The transverse colon \n c) The small intestine \n d) Stomach

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7

23% of CO2 is transported into ___ while the majority (70%) is transported into ___?

a) HCO3-, HP304 \n b) Plasma, HCO3- \n c) HbO2, Hb-CO2 \n d) Hb-CO2, HCO3-

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8

List three accessory organs and their functions

Liver: detoxification of drugs, synthesis, storage, heat production \n Pancreas: produces insulin which helps regulate glucose levels in the blood \n Gallbladder: Concentrates and stores bile

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9

State two or more important functions of mucus in the digestive tract

Allows the food to pass through the tube smoothly \n protects the digestive tube from digestive enzyme \n protecting the epithelium from bacteria

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10

How many chambers does the heart have?

a) 1 \n b) 2 \n c) 3 \n d) 4

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11

What is external respiration?

a) how air gets in and out of the lungs \n b) how oxygen diffuses from the lungs to the bloodstream and how carbon dioxide diffuses from blood and to the lungs \n c) how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported between the lungs and body tissues \n d) how oxygen is delivered to and carbon dioxide collected from body cells

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12

3. Which is not a layer of mucosa?

a. epithelium \n b. lamina propria \n c. inner circular muscular layer \n d. muscularis mucosae

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13

Describe the purpose of the liver.

In the digestive system, it has the function of production of bile. Some other functions include detoxification of drugs, recycling of red blood cells. deactivation of hormones, production of clotting products, storage (vitamins and minerals), synthesis of vitamin A, and heat production.

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14

Which major vessel supplies the pancreas?

a) Superior mesenteric artery \n b) Inferior mesenteric artery \n c) Common iliac artery \n d) Celiac trunk

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15
  1. Which of the following is not a part of the conducting zone in the lungs?

a) Nasal cavity \n b) Trachea \n c) Alveoli \n d) Pharynx

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16
  1. What is the correct order of the blood vessel wall structure from innermost to outermost?

a) Tunica interna, tunica externa, tunica media \n b) Tunica interna, tunica media, tunica externa \n c) Tunica externa, tunica media, tunica interna \n d) Tunica media, tunica interna, tunica externa

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17

Explain how oxygen is transported in the bloodstream.

Oxygen is transported in the blood by binding to a protein called hemoglobin. It is made up of four polypeptide chains and is capable of carrying four different molecules of oxygen at a time. At the center of the hemoglobin molecules, there are these oval shaped heme-groups with an iron in the center where oxygen molecules are able to bind. Hemoglobin can pick up oxygen by binding to it and carry it from the lungs to different tissues in the body where oxygen is needed.

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18

Capillaries are best described as:

a) highly vascularized \n b) thick walks that allow exchange \n c) smallest blood vessels \n d) thin walls that allow exchange \n e) both C and D

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19

Which statement best describes simple diffusion?

a) from high to low concentration \n b) from low to high concentration \n c) polar substances \n d) none of the above

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20

The _________ lies in front of the sacrum and passes through the pelvic diaphragm to continue as the anal canal

a) anus \n b) descending colon \n c) large intestine \n d) rectum

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21

State two types of digestion and their functions.

-Mechanical digestion: 3 layers of smooth muscle facilitate the churning of the food bolus \n - chemical digestion: hydrochloric acid denatures proteins \n Pepsinogen is converted to pepsin and is necessary for the digestion of proteins

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22

What is the purpose of heart valves?

a) To prevent the back flow of blood. \n b) To prevent the blood from flowing too fast. \n c) To allow the blood to flow in both directions. \n d) To regulate the pressure of the blood.

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23

2. How many lobes does the right lung have?

a) 2 \n b) 4 \n c) 3 \n d) 1

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24

3. What do partietal cells secrete in the digestive system?

a) Amylase \n b) Hydrochloric acid \n c) Pepsin \n d) Bile

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25

What is mechanical digestion?

Mechanical digestion is the process of food being physically broken down into pieces by the teeth.

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26

Which two valves are located between the atria and the ventricles?

a) Pulmonic valve and Tricuspid valve \n b) Tricuspid valve and Bicuspid valve \n c) Aortic valve and Pulmonic valve \n d) Bicuspid valve and Aortic valve

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27

How many lobes does the left lung have?

a) 1 \n b) 3 \n c) 2 \n d) 4

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28

Where in the body is bile produced?

a) The liver \n b) The kidneys \n c) The pancreas \n d) The small intestine

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29

Explain the process of respiration and state its four distinct phases:

Respiration is the process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the atmosphere and body cells. Its four distinct phases are pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, the transport of gases, and internal respiration

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30
  1. What are the 3 layers of the heart?

a) Endocardium, Myocardium, Pericardium \n b) Pericardium, Parietal Pericardium, Visceral Pericardium \n c) Pericardium, Endocardium, Visceral Pericardium

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31
  1. What is the function of bile?

a) To produce feces \n b) To prevent heartburn \n c) To help digest fat in the small intestine (Emulsifies lipids)

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32

_____is located between two pleural sacs and is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity?

a) Hilum \n b) Pleura \n c) Mediastinum \n d) Thoracic aperture

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33

Describe systolic and diastolic pressure- which is the top number?

-Systolic (top): the pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular contraction \n - Diastolic (bottom): the pressure when the ventricles are relaxing

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34

High temperature, high blood pressure, and high blood CO2 levels all contribute to decreasing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.

True

False — high temperature, low blood pressure, and high blood CO2 levels contribute to decreasing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen.

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35

Which of the following is the correct order for when food goes through the digestive system:

a. Mouth, esophagus, stomach, large intestine \n b. Esophagus, small intestine, stomach, anus \n c. Mouth esophagus, large intestine, stomach

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36

Salivary glands can be found in the…

a. Esophagus \n b. Pancreas \n c. Stomach \n d. Mouth \n e. None of the above

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37

How does Asthma affect the Airways?

It affects the bronchi and bronchioles which become inflamed to certain triggers and causes the airways to become more narrow and secret more mucus and makes it harder to breath.

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38

Where do most of the absorption of nutrients occur?

A) small intestine \n B) large intestine \n C) stomach \n D) esophagus

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39

What is the double sac surrounding the heart?

A) the myocardium \n B) the pericardium \n C) the endocardium \n D) the epicardium

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40

What is the Pericardial Cavity, and what is it filled with?

It's the space between the parietal and the visceral layers \n It's filled with a liquid called pericardial fluid to help expand and contract the heart without causing wear or tear \n It prevents friction between the layers as they rub against each other when the heart beats.

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41

What are the four layers of the GI tract in order? (deep to superficial)

a. Mucosa, Muscularis, Sub-mucosa, Adventitia/Serosa \n b. Muscularis, Mucosa, Sub-mucosa, Adventitia/Serosa \n c. Mucosa, Sub-mucosa, Muscularis, Adventitia/Serosa \n d. Muscularis, Adventitia/Serosa, Mucosa, Sub-mucosa

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42

Which of the following isn’t a major structure in the superior mediastinum?

a. Thoracic Aorta \n b. Esophagus \n c. Aortic Arch \n d. Superior Vena Cava

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43

What is an example of an elastic artery found in the body?

a. Ulnar Artery \n b. Radial Artery \n c. Axillary Artery \n d. Aorta

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44

What are continuous capillaries and their functions?

The continuous capillaries are the least permeable and found in skin and muscle. They allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to pass through. They aren’t very permeable as the tunica intima is joined together by tight junctions. However, the intercellular clefts allow for the passage of small things inside (like oxygen and carbon dioxide).

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45

What triggers the Cephalic Phase?

a) when food enters the stomach \n b) the thought, sight, or smell of food \n c) when chyme enters the small intestine

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46

what do villi and microvilli do?

a) increase surface area \n b) produce stomach acids \n c) break down pepsin

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47

what is a bolus?

a) an organ \n b) a muscle cell \n c) food mixed with saliva

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48

Explain what each macromolecule breaks down into.

Carbohydrates break down into monosaccharides. Fats break down into fatty acids and glycerol. Proteins break down into amino acids.

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49

The majority of carbon dioxide is transported by which method?

a) Bound to hemoglobin \n b) Dissolved in plasma \n c) Carbonate ions \n d) Bicarbonate ions

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50

Which type of transport allows the transport of substances freely with the help of a protein channel?

a) Secondary active transport \n b) Facilitated diffusion \n c) Active transport \n d) Simple diffusion

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51

List the common digestive enzymes involved in digestion, their main function, what structures they can be found in and provide an example.

Amylase: Responsible for chemical breakdown of starches and carbohydrates into sugar

Protease: Responsible for the chemical breakdown of proteins into amino acids

Lipase: Responsible for the chemical breakdown of lipids into fatty acids.

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52

The heart is located in the following:

a) Pericardium \n b) Pericardial Cavity \n c) Myocardium \n d) Mediastinum of the thoracic cavity

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53

Which of the following is responsible for heart muscle contraction?

a) Atrioventricular node \n b) Sinoatrial node \n c) Bundle of His \n d) Purkinje fibers

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54

What primary muscle is responsible for inhalation during breathing that is quiet?

a) Diaphragm \n b) External intercostals \n c) Internal intercostals \n d) Rectus abdominis

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55

Which of the following is responsible for filtering, warming, and humidifying air?

Bronchioles \n Pharynx \n Larynx \n Nasal cavity

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56

What is the purpose of the pancreas?

The pancreas produces enzyme-rich pancreatic juice that aids in the breakdown of proteins to amino acids, starches to maltose, fats to fatty acids and glycerol, and nucleases that digest DNA and RNA. It also serves an endocrine function, as specialized pancreatic cells produce the hormones glucagon and insulin. These hormones regulate blood sugar levels by initiating glycogen-to-glucose conversion or vice versa.

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57

What is this valve between the aorta and the left ventricle?

a) bicuspid \n b) tricuspid \n c) aortic \n d) pulmonary

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58

Select all that apply: The function of blood is to...

a) protection against infections \n b) regulation of ph and temp \n c) increase fluid balance \n d) transport gases

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59

The mouth has three salivary glands, one of which is..

a) parotid \n b) subsalival \n c)suboralular

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60

During expiration, does the intrapulmonary volume increase or decrease?

A) Intrapulmonary volume increases \n B) Intrapulmonary volume decreases \n C) Intrapulmonary volume doesn’t increase or decrease

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61

Which of the following are a part of the serous pericardium?(Select all that apply)

A)Fibrous pericardium \n B)Visceral pericardium \n C)Parietal pericardium

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62

What is the function of the large intestine ?

The function of the large intestine is to absorb some water, vitamins, minerals, electrolytes and drugs and also defecation.

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63

What is the correct order of the capillaries from most to least permeable

a) Fenestrated, Continuous, Sinusoid \n b) Continuous, Fenestrated, Sinusoid \n c) Sinusoid, Fenestrated, Continuous \n d) Fenestrated, Sinusoid, Continuous

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64

The epiglottis closes when breathing but opens when swallowing food

True

False

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65

Which of the following statements is false

a) Chemical digestion begins in the mouth \n b) Sodium bicarbonate neutralizes acidic bolus \n c) The small intestine is also known as the brush border \n d) Carbohydrates such as fructose and glucose enter the intestine through simple diffusion

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66

Explain the mechanism of contraction by referring to the three phases.

Firstly, depolarization occurs so positive sodium ions flood into the muscle cell and as a result, the membrane potential gets less negative. Next there's the plateau phase where sodium channels close, though only a few potassium channels open so it leaks out of the cell. This loss in positive charge causes the membrane potential to become more negative. However, to counteract this, calcium ion channels open and so the membrane potential does not decrease very rapidly. During repolarization, the calcium channels fully close and potassium keeps leaking out as more of the channels open. The membrane drops back to resting potential and that's when the absolute refractory period occurs. There cannot be a new contraction during this period.

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67

How many parts are there to the large intestine?

A. 1 \n B. 2 \n C. 3 \n D. 4 - cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal

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68

What is the only vein that feed directly into the right atrium?

A. Right coronary artery \n B. Anterior Cardiac Vein \n C. Great Cardiac Vein \n D. Coronary Sinus

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69

What is the order of lobes and fissures in the left lung going from superior to inferior?

A. Middle lobe, horizontal fissure, superior lobe, oblique fissure, inferior lobe \n B. Inferior lobe, superior lobe, middle lobe, oblique fissure, horizontal fissure \n C. Superior lobe, oblique fissure, middle lobe, horizontal fissure, inferior lobe \n D. Superior lobe, horizontal fissure, middle lobe, oblique fissure, inferior lobe

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70

What are the purpose of microvilli and villi in the digestive system?

It increase surface area meaning they can absorb more nutrients

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71

Which side of the heart receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and sends it to the lungs to get oxygen?

a. Left side of the heart \n b. Left ventricle \n c. Apex of the heart \n d. Right side of the heart

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72

Where does gas exchange occur?

a. Conducting zone \n b. Pulmonary vein \n c. Respiratory zone \n d. Base of the lungs

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73

Identify the impressions or dents of the right and left lungs.

Right Lung = esophagus, superior vena cava, and azygos vein impressions \n Left Lung = aortic, esophageal, and cardiac impressions

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74

How many lobes are found in the left and right lung?

a)  2 : 2 \n      b)  2 : 3 \n      c)  1 : 1 \n      d)  2 : 4

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75

What is the correct order to the 6 steps of digestion?

a)  Indigestion, Propulsion, Mechanical digestion, Chemical digestion, Absorption, Defecation \n b)  Indigestion, Propulsion, Chemical digestion, Mechanical digestion, Absorption, Defecation \n c)  Indigestion, Absorption, Mechanical digestion, Chemical digestion, Propulsion, Defecation

d)  Indigestion, Propulsion, Mechanical digestion, Absorption, Chemical digestion, Defecation

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76

Which blood vessel contains the most smooth muscle

a) Elastic artery \n b) Venule \n c) Muscular artery \n d) Vein

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77

2. Blood is mainly made up of

a) Platelets \n b) Erythrocytes \n c) Plasma \n d) Leukocytes

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78

Does esophagus break down food

a) Chemically \n b) Mechanically \n c) Neither \n d) Chemically and Mechanically

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79

The order of the external structure of the kidney’s from deep to superficial is

a. Renal fascia, adipose tissue, renal capsule \n b. Renal fascia, renal capsule, adipose tissue \n c. Renal capsule, renal fascia, adipose tissue \n d. Renal capsule, adipose tissue, renal fascia

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80

What is one of these that describes tubular secretion?

a. General filtration of plasma into Bowman’s capsule \n b. Selective movement of substances from peritubular capillaries into tubule \n c. Selective movement of substances from tubule into peritubular capillaries \n d. None of the above

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81

Which of the following is not one of the functions of the renal system?

a. Maintains blood osmolarity \n b. Excretion of waste and toxins \n c. Regulates the volume of blood \n d. All of the above are functions in renal system

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82

The sternal angle can be seen at which level?

a) T4 \n b) T5 \n c) T6 \n d) T4/T5

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83

What is the significance of the sternal angle?

a) Easy to locate and palpate \n b) Bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk as well as the trachea \n c) Junction between ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta \n d) All of the above

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84

Which respiration phase gets air in and out of the lungs?

a) Pulmonary ventilation \n b) External respiration \n c) Transport of gases \n d) Internal respiration

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85

Simple diffusion allows for:

a) Only lipid-soluble substances \n b) Only Non-polar substances \n c) Non-polar and lipid-soluble substances

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86

The External Intercostal Muscles are the:

a) Second layer, deep to EIM \n b) Outermost \n c) Third layer, deep to IIM

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87

What are the four distinct phases of respiration and briefly describe each:

  1. Pulmonary ventilation – how air gets in and out of the lungs

  2. External respiration – how oxygen diffuses from the lungs to the bloodstream and how carbon dioxide diffuses from blood and to the lungs

  3. Transport of gases – how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported between the lungs and body tissues

  4. Internal respiration – how oxygen is delivered to and carbon dioxide collected from body cells

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88

How is carbon dioxide transported in blood?

a. heme group \n b. capillaries \n c. bicarbonate ions \n d. gas exchange

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89

which heart valve pumps blood to the lungs for gas exchange?

a. Semilunar valves \n b. pulmonary valve \n c. tricuspid valve \n d. bicuspid valve

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90

what is the function of the kidney?

a. regulate blood volume and maintain the proper balance of electrolytes in the body \n b. release digestive enzymes \n c. emulsify fat by physically breaking large fat globules \n d. produces aldosterone

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91

State the components of the arterial system and its function.

  • elastic arteries = for conducting, thick-walled, and highly elastic, located near the heart.

  • muscular arteries = for distributing, delivers blood to organs, active in vasoconstriction

  • arterioles = fine control of flow to capillaries. composed of smooth muscle and fibrous tissue

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92

Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?

A) Tunica Intima \n B) Tunica Media \n C) Tunica Externa \n D) Basement Membrane

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93

In order to prevent self-digestion of the pancreas, activation of pancreatic proteases occurs in the:

A) Stomach. \n B) Pancreas. \n C) Liver. \n D) Duodenum. \n E) Gallbladder

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94

Which structure is not part of the inspiration process?

A) Lungs \n B) Trachea \n C) Larynx \n D) Bronchioles \n E) All are part of the inspiration process.

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95

What are the functions of the small intestine? Does villi aid in these functions?

The main function of the small intestine is to systematically break down food and absorb the needed nutrients for the body. The villi present in the small intestine helps absorb the nutrients from chyme which is produced in the stomach, by the food you eat.

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96

Which coronary vessel does not need to drain into the coronary sinus?

a) the great cardiac vein \n b) the right marginal artery \n c) the anterior interventricular vein \n d) the anterior cardiac veins

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97

After coming into contact with _______ in the stomach, pepsinogen is converted into _______ to break down _________

a) hydrochloric acid; pepsin; proteins \n b) salivary amylase; peptides; proteins \n c) water; lipase; starches \n d) hydrochloric acid; proteins; fats

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98

You are a paramedic that’s been called to save a student whose lunch went down the ‘wrong pipe’. With your knowledge of how the trachea bifurcates, which bronchi will you look into first and why?

a) the right; the lumen of this bronchi is larger than the left \n b) the left; this bronchi branches from the trachea at a more verticle angle than the right \n c) the right; this bronchi branches from the trachea at a more verticle angle than the left \n d) the left; the cartilage in this bronchi is weaker than the right, thus more susceptible to rupture

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99

Why might the body get carbon monoxide poisoning, but not carbon dioxide poisoning? Explain in terms of the structure of hemoglobin found in erythroc

Oxygen readily binds to the iron found in the heme groups of a hemoglobin protein. Carbon dioxide does not compete for this site, binding to a different part of hemoglobin instead. Carbon monoxide, however, will compete with oxygen to bind to the same heme groups/more readily binds to iron than oxygen, resulting in carbon monoxide poisoning.

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100

What is the order of the layers of the heart from most superficial too deep?

A) parietal layer, fibrous layer, visceral layer \n B) fibrous layer, visceral layer, parietal layer \n C) fibrous layer, parietal layer, visceral layer \n D) visceral layer, parietal layer, fibrous layer

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