Unit 2: Organelles

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Foreword: // when studying, have definitions as the given, and the terms as what you are answering: zoom into pictures to see : don't be scared to override answers you know!! : answer to this is f for the failure you shouldn't get after studying

f

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living things are made of cells, cells are the basic unit of life, and all existing cells are made of other living cells

Principles of Cell Theory

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composed of many cells that may organize into tissue>organs>organ systems

Multicellular Organisms

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composed of one cell

Unicellular Organisms

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prokaryotic cells

bacteria, they have no nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles, divide via binary fission, are unicellular, and have peptidoglycan cell walls

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eukaryotic cells

cells of animals, plants, fungi, and protists. have a nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, divide by mitosis, one or many cells, have cell walls in fungi and plants

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plant cells

<p>cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, ER, golgi apparatus, central vacuole, mitochondria, chloroplast, and cell wall.</p>

cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, ER, golgi apparatus, central vacuole, mitochondria, chloroplast, and cell wall.

<p>cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, ER, golgi apparatus, central vacuole, mitochondria, chloroplast, and cell wall.</p>
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animal cells

<p>cell membrane, cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, centrioles, centrosomes, cilia, flagella, mitochondria</p>

cell membrane, cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, centrioles, centrosomes, cilia, flagella, mitochondria

<p>cell membrane, cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, centrioles, centrosomes, cilia, flagella, mitochondria</p>
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contains and protects genetic material (DNA)/ surrounded by nuclear membrane | nuclear pores control what goes in and out. | not in bacteria cells

nucleus

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aids in cellular respiration and breaks down food for ATP | located in the inner membrane and matrix | not in bacteria cells | powerhouse

mitochondria

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move substances in and outside of cells

vesicles

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breakdowns decay | programs cell death via apoptosis | contains enzymes | only in animal cells

lysosomes

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responsible for photosynthesis | made of grana (stacks) and stroma (fluid) | plant cells only

chloroplast

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storage center of the cell | not in bacteria cells

vacuoles

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make proteins by translation | made of rRNA | located around cell and rough ER | not in bacteria cells

ribosomes

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move fluid across cell surface | short, many, oar like | not in plant cells

cilia

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move entire cell | long, few | not in plant cells

flagella

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a thin membrane enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell; proteins in the membrane control passage of ions in and out of the cell (phospholipid bilayer)

cell membrane

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protects and maintains shape of the cell | made of cellulose in plants, chitin in fungi, and peptidoglycan in bacteria | not in animal cells

cell wall

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hold everything in the cell in place and provides a solution for chemical reactions | jelly like substance mostly made of water

cytoplasm

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receives and ships vesicles of protein | folded membrane | not in bacteria cells

golgi apparatus

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aid in cell division by pulling chromosomes apart | made of microtubules | animal cells only

centrioles/centrosomes

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makes proteins | ribosomes on the surface, hugs nucleus | not in bacteria cells

rough ER

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makes lipids, destroys toxins, and regulates calcium | attached to rough ER | not in bacteria cells

smooth ER

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ER

endoplasmic reticulum

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nucleus

<p>What is A?</p>

What is A?

<p>What is A?</p>
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mitochondria

<p>What is B?</p>

What is B?

<p>What is B?</p>
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vesicles

<p>What is C?</p>

What is C?

<p>What is C?</p>
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lysosomes

<p>What is D?</p>

What is D?

<p>What is D?</p>
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chloroplasts

<p>What is E?</p>

What is E?

<p>What is E?</p>
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vacuoles

<p>What is F?</p>

What is F?

<p>What is F?</p>
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ribosomes

<p>What is G?</p>

What is G?

<p>What is G?</p>
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cilia

<p>What is H?</p>

What is H?

<p>What is H?</p>
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flagella

<p>What is I?</p>

What is I?

<p>What is I?</p>
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cell membrane

<p>What is J?</p>

What is J?

<p>What is J?</p>
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cell wall

<p>What is K?</p>

What is K?

<p>What is K?</p>
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cytoplasm

<p>What is L?</p>

What is L?

<p>What is L?</p>
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golgi apparatus

<p>What is M?</p>

What is M?

<p>What is M?</p>
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rough er

<p>What is N?</p>

What is N?

<p>What is N?</p>
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smooth er

<p>What is O?</p>

What is O?

<p>What is O?</p>
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centrioles/centrosomes

<p>What is P?</p>

What is P?

<p>What is P?</p>
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What does a Eukaryotic cell look like?

<p>membrane bound organelles, nucleus, basically all cells but bacteria</p>

membrane bound organelles, nucleus, basically all cells but bacteria

<p>membrane bound organelles, nucleus, basically all cells but bacteria</p>
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What does a Prokaryotic cell look like?

<p>no membrane bound organelles, no nucleus, bacteria cells</p>

no membrane bound organelles, no nucleus, bacteria cells

<p>no membrane bound organelles, no nucleus, bacteria cells</p>
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What does a Plant cell look like?

<p>defining features include the central vacuole, cell wall, and chloroplasts</p>

defining features include the central vacuole, cell wall, and chloroplasts

<p>defining features include the central vacuole, cell wall, and chloroplasts</p>
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What does an animal cell look like?

<p>defining feature include lack of cell wall, no central vacuole, more tubes</p>

defining feature include lack of cell wall, no central vacuole, more tubes

<p>defining feature include lack of cell wall, no central vacuole, more tubes</p>
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Predict the consequences of the failure or absence of an organelle inside a eukaryotic cell.

should an organelle fail the cell would likely die or start breaking down

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What is an organelle?

an organelle is a specialized structure within the cell that work to help the cell function

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