AQA Psychology - Schizophrenia

studied byStudied by 12 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

What is schizophrenia characterised by?

1 / 146

Tags and Description

147 Terms

1

What is schizophrenia characterised by?

profound disruption of cognition and emotion, loss of contact with reality

New cards
2

What percentage of the population is affected by SZ?

1%

New cards
3

Which term is defined as an excess of normal functioning?

positive symptoms

New cards
4

Which term is defined as a loss of normal functions?

negative symptoms

New cards
5

Name at least two examples of positive symptoms?

delusions, hallucinations, disorganised thinking and speech

New cards
6

Which term is defined as bizarre beliefs that make sense to patients with schizophrenia but not to others?

delusions

New cards
7

Which term is defined as bizarre, unreal perceptions of the environment that can be auditory, visual, olfactory or tactile?

hallucinations

New cards
8

Which type of delusion are paranoid in nature, involve beliefs that they are being followed or spied on?

(delusions of) persecution

New cards
9

Which type of delusion involves inflated and exaggerated beliefs about their power and importance?

(delusion of) grandeur

New cards
10

What are some types of disorganised speech?

neologisms, word salad, clang

New cards
11

What is the term used when SZ patients use newly-created words whose meanings are unknown to others?

neologisms

New cards
12

What is the term used to describe disorganised speech in which words or phrases are used in confusing and unintelligible mixtures that are semantically non-sense?

word salad

New cards
13

Which type of disorganised speech involve SZ patients choosing words based on their sounds to speak instead of their meanings?

clang

New cards
14

What are the two main negative symptoms in SZ patients?

poverty of speech (alogia) and avolition

New cards
15

Which negative symptom is characterised a reduction in the amount and quality of speech?

poverty of speech/alogia

New cards
16

How is alogia displayed?

fewer words produce, difficulty spontaneously producing words

New cards
17

What is a reduction of interests and desires and an inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed behaviour?

avolition

New cards
18

How can poor social functioning be distinct from avolition?

avolition must involve reduction in self-initiated involvement in activities that are available to the patient

New cards
19

According to DSM-V, how long should two or more symptoms persist on before they are diagnose with SZ?

at least 6 months

New cards
20

What are some issues with regards to the validity of classification and diagnoses of SZ?

gender bias, symptom overlap, comorbidity

New cards
21

What does validity refers to?

accuracy (of diagnosis)

New cards
22

Which other disorders have symptoms that may overlap with SZ?

depression, bipolar disorder, dissociative identity disorder (DID)

New cards
23

Why is symptom overlap an issue with validity?

difficult to distinguish SZ from related disorders

New cards
24

What is the extent to which two (or more) conditions co-occur?

comorbidity

New cards
25

What are some disorders that are comorbid with SZ?

depression, anxiety, substance abuse

New cards
26

Why is comorbidity a problem for the validity of SZ diagnoses?

difficult in separating out disorders/difficulty advising treatments

New cards
27

Who provided evidence for gender bias?

Loring and Powell (1998)

New cards
28

In Loring and Powell research, what percentage of the psychiatrists gave a diagnosis of SZ when the case was classed as 'male' and when the case was classed as 'female', respectively?

56% and 20% (respectively)

New cards
29

Was gender bias more evident among male or female psychiastrists?

male psychiatrists

New cards
30

Who did research into symptoms overlap in SZ diagnoses?

Ellason and Ross (1995)

New cards
31

In Ellason and Ross' research, which symptom was found to have symptoms overlap with SZ?

dissociative identity disorder (DID)

New cards
32

Who provided evidence for comorbidity issues between SZ with depression and substance abuse?

Buckley et al (2009)

New cards
33

What percentage of comorbidity was found between SZ and depression and substance abuse, respectively, in Buckley's study?

50% and 47%

New cards
34

What does reliability refers to?

consistency

New cards
35

How is reliability measured?

inter-observer/rater reliability or test-retest reliability

New cards
36

Measuring reliability by seeing whether two independent assessors using the same classification system give the same diagnosis is which way of measuring reliability?

inter-rater reliability

New cards
37

Measuring reliability by seeing whether diagnostic tests are consistent on different occasions is which way of measuring reliability?

test-retest reliability

New cards
38

What is the type of bias when psychiatrists are influenced by taught values and expectations when diagnosing patients?

cultural bias

New cards
39

Where did evidence for cultural bias come from?

Copeland (1971)

New cards
40

When given a description of a patient and asked for a diagnosis, what percentage of American psychiatrist and what percentage of British psychiatrist diagnosed them with SZ, respectively in Copeland's study?

69% (Americans) and 2% (British)

New cards
41

Who reported that African-Caribbean groups were 8 times more likely to be diagnosed with SZ than white groups in the UK?

Harrison et al (1997)

New cards
42

What is the type of bias that involve misinterpreting cultural differences in behaviour as 'bizarre' called?

ethnocentric bias

New cards
43

What can the cultural differences also represent that can also influence SZ?

environment factors: poorer housing, higher unemployment, social isolation

New cards
44

What is a major consequence of invalid or unreliable diagnosis of SZ?

social stigma

New cards
45

Why are classification systems needed?

provide common language for researchers around the world

New cards
46

What are the biological explanations of schizophrenia?

genetics, the dopamine hypothesis, neural correlates

New cards
47

"The more closely related the family member is to the person with SZ, the greater their chance of developing the disorder." This is the main argument of which explanation?

genetic explanation

New cards
48

Where does evidence for the genetic explanation comes from?

family studies, twin studies and adoption studies

New cards
49

What is the degree to which relatives share the same disorder?

concordance rate

New cards
50

If SZ is genetic then should DZ twins or MZ twins have higher concordance rates for the disorder?

MZ (monozygotic) twins

New cards
51

Who found that 16% of first degree relatives of SZ patients developed SZ compared to 7% in the control?

Varma (1997)

New cards
52

Who developed adoption research to support the role of genes in SZ?

Tienari et al (2004)

New cards
53

What did Tienari et al found to support the genetic explanation?

children whose biological mother had SZ have a higher rate of SZ compared a group of adoptees without any genetic risks

New cards
54

What does the genetic explanation overlook in general?

the role of the environment

New cards
55

Which neurotransmitter is linked to the development of positive symptoms of SZ?

dopamine

New cards
56

What do SZ sufferers have compared to non-SZ people that stimulate more dopamine binding and more neurons firing?

D2 receptors

New cards
57

What can disturbances to dopamine transmission lead to?

problems with attention, perception and thought

New cards
58

What are drugs that stimulate neurons containing dopamine called?

dopamine agonists

New cards
59

What do these drug research (with amphetamine and L-dopa) shows about the relation between dopamine and SZ?

raising levels of dopamine result in symptoms similar to positive symptoms of SZ (hallucinations, delusions)

New cards
60

What practical application does the dopamine hypothesis has?

development of typical antipsychotic drugs (dopamine antagonists)

New cards
61

What happened when dopamine antagonist drugs are used to block D2 receptors?

reduced positive symptoms

New cards
62

What other neurotransmitter can be relevant to the development of SZ?

serotonin

New cards
63

What do atypical antipsychotics do to dopamine receptors

only temporarily block it

New cards
64

Which explanation of SZ links abnormalities within specific brain areas to SZ?

neural correlates

New cards
65

What do SZ patients often have differently, in terms of brain structure?

enlarged ventricles

New cards
66

How do enlarged ventricles affect the brain?

damage to central brain areas and the prefrontal cortex

New cards
67

Who found that enlarged ventricles are associated with only negative symptoms of SZ?

Weyandt (2006)

New cards
68

Why is cause-and-effect unclear in neural correlates explanation?

brain abnormalities could be the result and not the cause of SZ

New cards
69

How is determinism linked to humane?

the blame is put on the sufferer or external factors

New cards
70

How can determinism of an explanation be negative?

they may feel like they have no control and there was nothing they can do

New cards
71

What is the biological explanation be criticised for?

reductionism

New cards
72

What are the two main psychological explanations of SZ?

family dysfunction and cognitive explanations

New cards
73

What do family dysfunction explanations attribute the risk of SZ to?

abnormal/difficulty communication within the family

New cards
74

What are the two sub-explanations for family dysfunction explanations?

double-bind theory and expressed emotions (EE)

New cards
75

Is receiving contradictory/mixed messages, leading to confusion and fear of doing the wrong thing an example of double-bind or expressed emotions?

double-bind

New cards
76

Which positive symptom is the double-bind theory often linked to?

paranoid delusions

New cards
77

Which theory is referred to as the level of emotion expressed towards a SZ sufferer by their family (or carers)

expressed emotions (EE)

New cards
78

How can EE be shown in a dysfunctional family?

verbal criticism, hostility, emotional over-involvement, needless self-sacrifice

New cards
79

Is EE linked more to the course or the cause of SZ?

course

New cards
80

What have high levels of EE in carers been found to lead to?

poorer outcomes and an increased likelihood of relapse

New cards
81

What does Tienari et al adoption study suggest about the course of SZ?

the risk for SZ is increased when the adoptive family is characterised as highly critical

New cards
82

What practical application do family dysfunction theories have?

development of family therapy

New cards
83

According to NICE, what was the relapse rate in a family therapy?

26%

New cards
84

What is a limitation of the family dysfunction explanation?

difficulty of establishing cause-and-effect

New cards
85

What does the cognitive explanation for SZ linked to?

dysfunctional thought processing and the role of thinking

New cards
86

What are the two cognitive explanations for SZ?

egocentric bias and central control

New cards
87

Which positive symptom of SZ is egocentric bias linked to?

delusions

New cards
88

What does egocentric bias mean?

tendency for sufferers to interpret external events as having personal significance to them

New cards
89

What is the ability to suppress automatic responses while performing deliberate actions?

central control

New cards
90

Which SZ symptom is central control linked to?

disorganised speech and thinking

New cards
91

What are some "symptoms" of lack of central control?

derailment, incoherent sentences

New cards
92

Who reviewed studies and found that delusional patients showed various biases in their information processing like jumping to conclusion?

Sarin and Wallin (2004)

New cards
93

Which type of therapy is based on the cognitive explanation of SZ?

cognitive behavioural therapy for pscyhosis (CBTp)

New cards
94

Which was more effective, according to NICE, antipsychotic drug therapy or CBTp?

CBTp

New cards
95

What does CBTp do to patients with SZ?

reduce symptom severity and improve social functioning

New cards
96

What does the psychological explanation fail to take into account?

biological factors (genetics, neurotransmitters, brain abnormalites)

New cards
97

Which is a more holistic that incorporate both the biological and psychological explanations?

interactionist approach

New cards
98

How does the psychological approach being less determinist than the biological explanation have a positive impact?

the sufferer has control over SZ and they can actively work to change/manage the disorder

New cards
99

Which type of antipsychotic drug is chlorpromazine an example of?

typical antipsychotic drugs

New cards
100

Which symptoms do typical anti-psychotic drugs treat?

positive symptoms

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3930 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(27)
note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2858 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(10)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard165 terms
studied byStudied by 71 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard47 terms
studied byStudied by 58 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 76 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard65 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 63 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)