Psychology Ch 5, 6, 9

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sensory receptors

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167 Terms

1

sensory receptors

specialized neurons that respond to specific types of stimuli

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2

sensation

occurs when sensory receptors detect sensory stimuli

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3

transduction

sensory receptors detect a specific stimuli and convert energy to send an action potential to the CNS

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4

absolute threshold

minimum amount of stimulus energy that must be present for you to detect it 50% of the time

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5

subliminal messages

messages presented below the threshold of conscious awareness but able to be recieved

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6

just noticeable difference

the minimum difference in stimuli required to detect a change between stimuli

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7

perception

way that sensory info is interpreted, organized, and consciously experienced

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8

bottom-up processing

system in which perceptions are built from sensory input, first type

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9

top-down processing

interpretation of sensations influenced by available knowledge, experiences, and thoughts

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10

sensory adaptation

not perceiving stimuli that remain relatively constant over prolonged periods of time

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11

inattentional blindness

failure to notice something that is completely visible because of a lack of attention

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12

motivation

when you think you perceive something when it is not because you want it to happen

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13

signal detection theory

change in stimulus detection as a function of current mental state

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14

beliefs and values

people with positive attitudes towards something are more likely to rate it positively

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15

cultural differences

some cultures can be more predisposed to certain illusions

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16

light waves

the visible spectrum that humans can see

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17

color

different wavelengths of light

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18

red

longer wavelengths

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19

blue

short wavelengths

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20

amplitude

brightness/intensity of color

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21

blind spot

a point of no receptors, where information exits eye

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22

cones

daytime vision, color info, in fovea

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23

rods

nighttime vision

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24

frequency

number of waves that pass a given point at a given time

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25

pitch

frequency of sound waves

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26

loudness

amplitude of sound waves

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27

optic chasm

where the optic nerve of each eye merges

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28

what pathway

object recognition and identification

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29

where/how pathway

location and how someone might interact with the stimulus

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30

trichromatic theory

all colors can be made with red, green, and blue

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31

opponent process theory

color is coded in opponent pairs

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32

afterimage

continuation of a visual sensation after removal of the stimulus

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33

depth perception

ability to perceive spatial relationships

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34

binocular cues

cue that relies on both eyes

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35

binocular disparity

slightly different view each eye receives

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36

moncular cues

cues that only rely on one eye

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37

linear perspective

when two parallel lines converge in an image, a monocular cue

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38

interposition

partial overlap of objects

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39

outer ear

pinna and tympanic membrane

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40

middle ear

the three ossicles: malleus, incus, stapes

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41

inner ear

cochlea and basilar membrane

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42

temporal theory

frequency is coded by activity level of a sensory neuron

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43

place theory

different portions of the basilar membrane are sensitive to sounds of different frequencies

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44

monaural cues

each ear interacts with incoming sound waves differently

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45

binaural cues

provide location of sound using both ears

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46

interaural level difference

sound coming from one side of body is more intense at closest ear

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47

interaural timing difference

small difference in the time at which a given sound wave arrives at each ear

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48

deafness

partial or complete inability to hear

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49

congenital deafness

deafness from birth

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50

conductive hearing loss

associated with a failure in the vibration of the eardrum and/or movement of the
ossicles

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51

sensorineural hearing loss

failure to transmit neural signals from cochlea to brain

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52

vestibular sense

ability to maintain balance and body posture

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53

taste buds

groupings of taste receptor cells with hair like extensions that protrude into central pore of taste bud

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54

proprioception

perception of body position

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55

kinesthesia

perception of body’s movement throughout space

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56

tranduction

the method in which the senses are perceived

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57

pheromones

chemical messages sent by another individual

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58

meisnerr’s corpuscles

respond to pressure and lower-frequency vibrations

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59

pacinian corpuscles

detect transient pressure and higher frequency vibrations

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60

merkel’s discs

respond to light pressure

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61

ruffini corpuscles

detect stretch

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62

thermoception

temperature perception

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63

nociception

sensory signal indicating potential harm and maybe pain

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64

inflammatory pain

signals some type of tissue damage

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65

neuropathic pain

caused by damage to neurons of the nervous system

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66

congenital insensitivity to pain

rare genetic disorder in which the individual cannot feel pain from birth

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67

figure

focus of the visual field

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68

ground

the background

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69

gestalt principle of similarity

things that are alike tend to be grouped together

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70

gestalt principle of continuity

more likely to perceive continuous, smooth flowing likes rather than jagged, broken lines

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71

gestalt principle of closure

perceive a complete picture rather than segments

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72

pareidolia

psychological phenomenon that causes some people to see or hear a vague or random image or sound as something significant

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73

reflexes

motor/neural reactions to a specific stimulus (blinking, coughing)

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74

instincts

behaviors triggered by a broader range of events (migrating)

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75

learning

a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that results from experience

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76

associative learning

when an organism makes connections between stimuli or events that occur together in the environment

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77

approaches to learning

classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning

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78

unconditioned stimulus

stimulus that elicits a reflexive response

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79

unconditioned response

a natural unlearned reaction to a stimulus

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80

neutral stimulus

stimulus that does not naturally elicits a response

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81

conditioned stimulus

stimulus that elicits a response after repeatedly being paired with an unconditioned stimulus

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82

conditioned response

behavior caused by conditioned stimulus

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83

higher order conditioning

an established conditioned stimulus is paired with a new neutral stimulus (the second-order stimulus), so that eventually the new stimulus also elicits the conditioned response, without the initial conditioned stimulus being presented

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84

acquisition

initial period of learning when organism learns to connect a neutral stimulus and a unconditioned stimulus

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85

extinction

decrease in the conditioned response when the UCS is no longer presented with the CS

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86

spontaneous recovery

the return of a previously extinguished conditioned response following a rest period

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87

stimulus discrimination

when an organism learns to respond differently to various stimuli that are similar

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88

stimulus generalization

when an organism demonstrates the conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus

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89

habituation

learning not to respond to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly without change

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90

little albert

example of conditioning to get baby to fear furry things- watson

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91

positive operant conditioning

to add something

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92

negative operant conditioning

to take away something

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93

reinforcement

increasing a behavior

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94

punishment

decreasing a behavior

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95

pleasant consequence

results in more likely to occur again behavior

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96

unpleasant consequence

results in less likely to occur behavior

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97

positive reinforcement

something is added to increase the likelihood of a behavior (high grades, raise)

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98

negative reinforcement

something is removed to increase the likelihood for a behavior (car beeping that only goes after putting on seatbelt)

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99

primary reinforcers

those that have innate reinforcing qualities (food, pleasure)

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100

secondary reinforcers

ones that have no inherent value, but have value when linked with a primary reinforcer

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