AP Bio - Unit 6: Gene Expression and BioTechnology (Biotechnology and CRISPR)

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what is biotechnology

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1

what is biotechnology

the use of biological processes, organisms and systems to manufacture products intended to raise QoL

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2

restriction enzyme purpose/function

cuts DNA/RNA, found in microbes, only 4-8 base pairs long, hundreds have been isolated

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3

how do restriction enzymes cut?

looks for palindromic sequences associated with viruses. two types of cut are sticky ends and blunt cuts

<p>looks for palindromic sequences associated with viruses. two types of cut are sticky ends and blunt cuts</p>
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4

transgenic organism

organism with modified genes e.g. GMOs

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5

Gel electrophoresis purpose

a way to separate DNA fragments by running through agarose gel.

Different DNA samples are treated with the same restriction enzyme (this will make different size fragments because DNA samples are different. a current runs through buffer gel and to the gel. because DNA is negative, it migrates to the positive electrode. the distance is inverse to the DNA' fragment size (smaller = faster)

<p>a way to separate DNA fragments by running through agarose gel.</p><p>Different DNA samples are treated with the same restriction enzyme (this will make different size fragments because DNA samples are different. a current runs through buffer gel and to the gel. because DNA is negative, it migrates to the positive electrode. the distance is inverse to the DNA&apos; fragment size (smaller = faster)</p>
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6

Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR)

a way to produce copies of DNA without cells

steps:

  1. denaturing (94ºC-98ºC)

    1. DNA strands separate

  2. Annealing (50ºC-65ºC)

    1. Primers attatch to DNA strand

  3. Extension (75ºC-80ºC)

    1. Taq polymerase attaches to primer and replicates the DNA (Taq is used because it can withstand the higher temperatures that make is work faster)

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7

CRISPR-Cas9

CRISPR > tells Cas9 where to cut

Cas9 > Cuts DNA

has guide RNA embedded in Cas9 protein that looks for a matching sequence to cut. originally used as defence against viruses

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