Ch 19 Heart

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Pulmonary circuit

1 / 103

Tags and Description

104 Terms

1

Pulmonary circuit

Pumps deoxygenated blood towards lungs for oxygenation and back to the heart

New cards
2

Systemic circuit

Delivers oxygenated blood through body and back to the heart

New cards
3

Atria

2 superior chambers of heart; receive blood from pulmonary and systemic circuit

New cards
4

Ventricles

2 inferior chamber of heart; larger and have more musculature because they pump blood through pulmonary and systemic circuits

New cards
5

Apex

Point of heart; lies left of midline

New cards
6

Base

Superior portion of heart

New cards
7

Mediasternum

Heart is located in (central thoracic area between lungs)

New cards
8

Pericardium

Covering of the heart that consists of two layers

New cards
9

Fibrous pericardium

Strong layer of dense connective tissue; most superficial layer

New cards
10

Serous pericardium

Deeper layer of the pericardium which surrounds the heart; consists of two layers (parietal and visceral) separated by a cavity

New cards
11

Epicardium

Another name for the visceral serous pericardium that surrounds the heart

New cards
12

Myocardium

Cardiac muscle that makes up muscular wall of heart; located between epicardium and endocardium; have circular/spiral arrangement in the heart

New cards
13

Endocardium

Thin layer of connective tissue that lines the heart wall (muscle) and forms the inner lining

New cards
14

Pericardial cavity

Space between parietal serous pericardium and visceral serous pericardium; filled with fluid which lubricates membranes and allows heart to slide across them

New cards
15

Interventricular septa

Separates left and right ventricles

New cards
16

Interatrial septa

Separates left and right atrium

New cards
17

Superior and inferior vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary trunk, lung capillaries, pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid valve, left ventricle, aortic semilunar valve, aorta

Order of blood flow through the heart starting from vena cava and including valves

New cards
18

Coronary arteries

Blood vessels that supply the heart with oxygenated blood; located on external heart

New cards
19

Coronary sulcus

Groove where coronary arteries run through located between atrium and ventricles on external surface

New cards
20

Superior vena cava

Deoxygenated blood from systemic circuit above the level of the heart drains into...

New cards
21

Right atrium

Heart chamber that makes up right border of the heart; receives blood from superior and inferior vena cava and coronary veins; contains sinoatrial node and fossa ovalis

New cards
22

Inferior vena cava

Venous blood from below the level of the heart drains into ...

New cards
23

Sinoatrial node

Pacemaker of the heart located in the wall of the right atrium and control rhythm of heart beat; creates a signal that travels to both atria and signals all muscle cells to contract together

New cards
24

Fossa ovalis

Remnant of a hole from embryonic heart that connects left and right atrium to bypass pulmonary circuit; closes with change in pressure at birth to form ...

New cards
25

Foramen ovale

Hole in embryonic heart that connects right and left atrium to bypass pulmonary circuit

New cards
26

Tricuspid valve

Connects right atrium and right ventricle and prevents blood from regurgitating back into right atrium

New cards
27

Chordae tendinae

Fibers that anchor atrioventricular valves (tricuspid and bicuspid)

New cards
28

Papillary muscles

Structures that control chordae tendinae to open atrioventricular valves through their contraction

New cards
29

Right ventricle

Oxygen is still deoxygenated when pumped from right atrium into this chamber of the heart; it needs to be pumped into pulmonary circuit

New cards
30

Pulmonary valve

Structure found in pulmonary trunk that keeps blood from regurgitating back into right ventricle and reversing blood flow

New cards
31

Pulmonary trunk

This structure of the heart bifurcates into left and right pulmonary arteries and contains pulmonary valve

New cards
32

Pulmonary veins

Blood is oxygenated in the lungs and returns to heart via these structures (vessels)

New cards
33

Left atrium

Pulmonary veins drain oxygenated blood into this chamber of the heart

New cards
34

Bicuspid valve

Also called mitral valve or left atrioventricular valve; oxygen rich blood crosses this structure from left atrium into left ventricle; it prevents blood from regurgitating back into left atrium; contains chordae tendinae and papillary muscles

New cards
35

Left ventricle

Oxygen rich blood is pumped into aorta from this heart chamber

New cards
36

Aortic valve

Semilunar valve that prevents blood from regurgitating from atrium back into left ventricle

New cards
37

Aorta

First large artery of systemic circuit; contains semilunar valve; branches into smaller arteries to supply oxygen rich blood to body

New cards
38

Endocardium

Each valve is composed of ... with a connective tissue core

New cards
39

Semilunar valves

Valves that are located at the junction of ventricles and great arteries of pulmonary/systemic circuit

New cards
40

Cardiac skeleton

Dense connective tissue structure that surrounds all valves that functions to anchor valve cusps, prevent overdilation, blocks direct spread of impulses, and is the main point of insertion for cardiac muscle

New cards
41

Open

Blood filling the atria and pressing against AV valves causes increased pressure causes AV valve to ... then atrium contracts and pushes rest of blood through

New cards
42

Close

Ventricles contracting causes blood to push against valves and ... them; papillary muscles and chordae tendinae prevent flaps from going into atria

New cards
43

Open

When ventricles contract and pressure rises blood is pushed against semilunar valves causing them to ...

New cards
44

Closed

When ventricles relax pressure falls and blood flows back from arteries filling cusps of semilunar valves and forcing them ...

New cards
45

Atrioventricular

The first lub sound of a heart beat is characteristic of these valves closing

New cards
46

Semilunar

Second dub sound of heart beat is characteristic of these valves closing

New cards
47

2nd right parasternal space

Aortic valve is best heard at

New cards
48

2nd left parasternal intercostal space

Pulmonary valve is best heard at

New cards
49

5th left parasternal intercostal space

Tricuspid valve is best heard at apex of heart located at

New cards
50

5th left intercostal space at midclavicular line

Mitral valve is best heard at

New cards
51

Systole

Contraction of heart chamber (atrium or ventricles)

New cards
52

Diastole

Expansion of heart chamber (atrium or ventricle) after contraction when it refills with blood

New cards
53

Tachycardia

Elevated heart rate 100 bpm+

New cards
54

Bradycardia

Depressed heart rate <60 bpm

New cards
55

Left ventricle

This ventricle has thicker myocardium because it pumps blood to systemic circuit

New cards
56

HOCM

Congenital disorder of the heart wall with enlarge interventricular septum; decreases blood flow of left ventricle and systemic circuit; dangerous during exercise when blood flow to brain or vital organs can be blocked; distinct heart murmur; pre-screening is important for athletes

New cards
57

Myocardium

Name for cardiac muscle; is striated like skeletal muscle and contracts via sliding filament mechanism; contraction pumps blood from heart and vessels

New cards
58

Desmosomes, fasciae adherens, gap junctions

Cell junctions that hold cardiac muscle together

New cards
59

Fasciae adherens

Long desmosome-like junctions

New cards
60

Gap junctions

Hollow channels that allow cardiac muscle cells to communicate quickly and contract together (neurotransmitters are inefficient)

New cards
61

Calcium

Cardiac muscle is stimulated to contract by ... entering sarcoplasm which signals release of more ... by sarcoplasmic reticulum to trigger sliding filament mechanism

New cards
62

Conducting system

System of cardiac muscle that generates and conducts impulses and signals cells to contract rhythmically; includes specialized muscle cells like sinoatrial node

New cards
63

Sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, bundle branches, purkinje fibers

List the pathway of the conducting system

New cards
64

Sinoatrial node

First part of conducting system that creates signal that travels to both atria and stimulates muscle cells to contract together

New cards
65

Atrioventricular node

Conduction from sinoatrial node comes back into the right atrium at the top of atrioventricular septum to this structure

New cards
66

Atrioventricular bundle

Signal of conducting system goes down atrioventricular node to this structure located in interventricular septa

New cards
67

Bundle branches

Structures of conducting system that descend down interventricular septa to apex of heart

New cards
68

Purkinje fibers

Distal bundle branches that stimulates contraction of both ventricles

New cards
69

Depolarization

Cardiac muscle cell is more positively charged

New cards
70

Repolarization

Cardiac muscle returns to normal

New cards
71

QRS

This portion of an ECG graph represents the biggest electrical activity caused by the bundle branches of the conducting system and signals ventricles to contract

New cards
72

P wave

Part of ECG that represents atrial contraction or systole

New cards
73

T wave

Part of ECG that represents repolarization/relaxation/diastole to normal shape

New cards
74

Sinus

How often heart is beating; part of ECG usually 60-100 bpm

New cards
75

Atrial fibrilation

This condition is characteristic of no defined P wave in ECG, atria is not contracting well

New cards
76

Heart block

Results due to slow communication between atria and ventricles

New cards
77

Third degree heart block

Results in no communication between atria and ventricles; contraction occurs randomly and independently

New cards
78

Parsympathetic

Innervation of this division of the ANS decreases hear rate through parasympathetic fibers that run in vagus nerve; cardiac center located in medulla

New cards
79

Sympathetic

Innervation of heart from this division of the ANS increases heart rate and contractile force to pump more blood through systemic circuit

New cards
80

Coronary arteries

Blood supply to muscular walls and tissues of hear arises from base of aorta and runs through coronary sulcus; left and right

New cards
81

Right coronary artery

Blood vessel originates from aorta and travels between right atrium and right ventricle on surface of the heart then travels posteriorly

New cards
82

Left coronary artery

Blood vessel originates from aorta and passes behind pulmonary trunk toward left margin of the hear below the left atrium and bifurcates into anterior interventricular artery and circumflex arteryA

New cards
83

Anterior interventricular artery

Branch of left coronary artery that supplies most of left ventricle; called widow's maker because most common artery to be blocked

New cards
84

Circumflex artery

Branch of left coronary artery that goes toward the back of the heart and supplies lateral wall and posterior left ventricle

New cards
85

Cardiac veins

These blood vessels carry deoxygenated blood from heart to right atrium; they occupy sulci on heart surface; example includes coronary sinus

New cards
86

Coronary sinus

Blood vessel of heart that runs in posterior part of coronary sulcus; returns majority of venous blood from heart to right atrium; cardiac veins drain into this structure on posterior heart

New cards
87

Great cardiac vein, middle cardiac vein, small cardiac vein

Name the major veins of the heart that drain into coronary sinus and into right atrium (3 of them)

New cards
88

Atherosclerosis

Fatty deposits in lumen (hollow opening of blood vessels) of coronary arteries

New cards
89

Angina

Chest pain associated with partial or full blockage of coronary artery

New cards
90

Myocardial infarction

Complete blockage of coronary artery due to severe atherosclerosis; causes cardiac muscle tissue to die; also called heart attack

New cards
91

Heart failure

Progressive weakening of the heart where it cannot meet body's demands for oxygenated bloodCon

New cards
92

Congestive heart failure

Heart overcompensates for weakness due to heart failure and becomes enlarged; reduces pumping efficiency

New cards
93

Angioplasty

Treatment for myocardial infarction where catheter is threaded into blocked coronary artery and balloon is inflated to open blood vessel and restore blood flow

New cards
94

Coronary bypass

Treatment of myocardial infarction; blood vessel is collected from other part of body and sutured to exposed coronary artery to create bypass for blockage

New cards
95

Partial bypass

Treatment for myocardial infarction where diagnosis of atherosclerosis results in prescription of blood thinning medication to prevent blockage

New cards
96

Arrythmias

Variation of normal heart rhythmVe

New cards
97

Ventricular fibrillation

Type of arrhythmia that results in rapid and random firing of electrical impulses in ventricles; crippled conducting system; common cause of cardiac arrest; fluttering instead of complete contraction/relaxation; insufficient blood pumping to systemic circuit; leads to fainting or collapse

New cards
98

Atrial fibrillation

Type of arrhythmia where impulses circle within atrial myocardium stimulating AV node; promotes clot formation and leads to stroke or pulmonary embolus when clot gets stuck in smaller capillaries; episodes of anxiety, fatigue, shortness of breath and palpitations; fibrillation requires correction

New cards
99

Ventricular septal defect

Most common congenital heart defect; consists of a hole in septa that causes oxygen rich and oxygen poor blood to mix into systemic circuit; inadequately oxygenated blood is pumped to tissues and ventricles work harder to increase blood flow; results in fatigue/fainting

New cards
100

Transposition of great vessels

Congenital heart defect where aorta is connected to right ventricle and pulmonary trunk is connected to left ventricle; requires surgical correction; deoxygenated blood passes to systemic circuit and oxygenated blood gets recycled in pulmonary circuit; great vessels are in the wrong place (reflected)

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 27 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5539 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(29)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard793 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard70 terms
studied byStudied by 21 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 29 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 12 people
Updated ... ago
4.7 Stars(3)
flashcards Flashcard97 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard25 terms
studied byStudied by 98 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)