Reproductive System

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common elements of both male and female repro system

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1

common elements of both male and female repro system

  • have primary reproductive organs (gonads)

    • testes

    • ovaries

  • produce large amounts of sex hormones

  • have accessory reproductive organs

    • towards the site of fertilization (females)

    • towards the outside of the body (males)

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gametes

  • produced by both males and females

  • female: releases a single gamete monthly

    • oocyte

  • male: produces large # of gametes

    • 100 million/day

    • stored for short time

    • if not expelled = reabsorbed

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commonalities between the male and female repro system

  • sexual union, copulation, coitus, sexual intercourse

  • hormones

  • support, protection, nourishment (mostly in females)

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4

puberty

  • onset during adolescence

  • initiated by the hypothalamus

  • the GnRH hormone acts on the pituitary to release FSH and LH

  • gonads start to secrete sex hormones + gametes mature

  • external sex development

    • enlarged breasts (female)

    • pubic and facial hair (males)

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hormones initiating puberty

  • hypothalamus releases GnRH

  • stimulates the antierir pituitary to release…

    • FSH

    • LH

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perineum

  • urogenital triangle

  • anal triangle

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urogenital triangle

  • urethral and vagina (female)

  • penis and scrotum (male)

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anal triangle

  • anus and external anal sphincter

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female primary reproductive organs

ovaries

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female accessory reproductive organs

  • uterine tubes

  • uterus

  • vagina

  • external genitalia

  • mammary glands

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ovaries

  • paired, oval organs

  • within the pelvic cavity lateral to the uterus

  • slightly larger than an almond in an adult (size varies based on menstrual cycle + pregnancy)

  • surrounding the ovary is a simple cuboidal layer - germinal epithelium

  • deep to that is the tunic albuginea (dense CT)

  • outer cortex + inner medulla

  • ovarium artery and vein

  • tissue

    • ovarian ligament

    • mesovarium

    • broad ligament

    • suspensory ligament

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ovarian follicles

  • site of oocyte production and sex hormone release

  • consist of oocyte surrounded by follicle cell

    • support the oocyte

    • thousands found in the cortex

    • 6 main types

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ovarian artery and ovarian vein

  • supply each ovary

  • ovarian arteries are direct branches off the aorta

  • veins drain into the inferior vena cava or renal vein

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innervation of the reproductive system

  • autonomic nervous system

    • sympathetic: T10 segments of the spinal cord

    • parasympathetic: CN X

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6 types of follicles

1.) primordial follicles

2.) primary

3.) secondary

4.) antral

5.) mature

6.) oocyte

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follicle steps

primordial -- primary -- secondary -- antral -- mature -- oocyte

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primary follicle

  • granulosa cells

  • secretes estrogen and it matures

    • stimulates change in the uterine lining

  • zona pellucida: translucent structure containing glycoproteins

  • cuboidal epithelium

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secondary follicle

  • layers of granulosa cells + thecal cells

  • helps control development and secretes androgen

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antral follicle

  • many layers of granulosa cells and fluid-filled space (antrum)

  • serous fluid lets oocyte be able to leave unscathed

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mature follicle

  • form from a secondary follicle

  • bigger and more fluid

  • one formed per month

  • contains a secondary oocyte

  • the oocyte is released

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corpus luteum

  • forms from remnants of follicle

  • after mature follicle ruptures and oocyte expelled

  • secretes progesterone and estrogen

  • 1st step of reabsorbing follicle tissue

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corpus albicans

  • formed from regressed corpus luteum

  • white CT scar -- also reabsorbed

  • most structures are reabsorbed

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primordial follicle

  • most primitive type of ovarian follicle

  • primary oocyte and a single flattened layer of follicle cells

  • 1.5 million presented at birth

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thecal cells

  • help control follicle development

  • secrete androgens are converted to estrogen by granulosa cells

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before birth (oogenesis)

oogonia

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childhood oogensis

atresia

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menopause

  • woman cease cycling for 1 year

  • not pregnant or have other medical condition

  • normal onset about 45-55 yr/old

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oogenesis

maturation of a primary oocyte to a secondary oocyte

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before birth follicle development

primordial follicle

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puberty to menopause follicle development

  • primary follicle

  • secondary follicle

  • antral follicle

  • mature follicle

  • outdated seconday oocyte

  • corpus luteum

  • corpus albicans

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ovarian cycle phases

  • follicular phase

  • ovulation

  • luteal phase

  • menarche (menstral cycle)

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follicular phase

  • days 1-13

  • stimulated by LH and FSH

  • granulosa cells release inhibin = increase FSH because we want more follicles

  • oocye forced to one side of follicle

  • polar body formed

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ovulation

  • release of a secondary oocyte from a mature follicle

  • occurs on day 14

  • peak LH secretion

    • follicle continues to expand and the surface becomes really thin

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luteal phase

  • days 15-28

  • remaining follicle cells become corpus luteum

  • causes menstruation (marks the end of the luteal phase)

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ovarian cancer

  • primary malignancy in the ovary

  • may originate from oocytes, CT, or surface epithelium

  • 5th most common cancer in women

  • initial symptoms are non-specific

    • constipation, urinary urgency, abdominal swelling, pelvic pain, indigestion, nausea, back pain, weight changes

  • no reliable test for disease

  • often detected late

  • treatment: surgery or chemotherapy

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HCG

human chorionic gonadotropin

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uterine tubes

  • infundibulum

  • ampula

  • isthmus

  • intra-mural (uterine body)

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HSG

ink can be inserted into the uterus/vagina to release ink to see if the tubes are blocked

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uterine tubes function

transport

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what section of the uterine tube does fertilization occur?

ampulla

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ectopic pregnancy

fertilized oocyte implants outside the endometrium

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tubal pregnancy

  • one type of ectopic pregnancy

  • fertilize egg implants in the uterine tube

  • unable to expand as the embryo grows

  • embyro only viable until week 8

  • uterine wall ruptures if the embryo is not removed

  • hemorrhage and loss of life possible

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3 tunics of the uterus

  • mucosa (simple ciliated columnar epithelium)

  • muscularis (circular and longitudinal)

  • serosa

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shape and location of the uterus

  • pear shaped

  • lumen area

  • anteverted (pointing toward the belly button)

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function of the uterus

  • site for pre-embryo

  • supports, protects, nourishes the developing embryo

  • ejects fetus at birth (baroreceptors + positive feedback)

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regions of the uterus

  • fundus

  • body

  • isthmus

  • cervix

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endometriosis

  • part of the endometrium is displaced

    • the tissue becomes implanted on the external surface of organs within the abdominopelvic cavity

  • may be grown under the influence of hormones

    • cannot be expelled normally

    • may cause pain and scarring

    • often linked to fertility problems

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treatment for endometriosis

  • hormones to retard the growth of endometrial tissue

  • surgery

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uterine cycle

  • menstrual phase

  • proliferative phase

  • secretory phase

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menstrual phase

  • day 1-5 of cycle

  • ditching the functional layer of endometrium

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proliferative phase

  • days 6-14 of the cycle

  • making a new functional layer

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secretory phase

  • days 15-28 of the cycle

  • increased vascularization and development of uterine glands = a response to progesterone from corpus luteum

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when ovulation approaches…

  • granulosa cells of the mature follicle increase their rate of fluid secretion into the antrum

  • the volume then increases and the edge of the follcicle becomes thin and eventaully reptures

  • this expells the secondary oocyte through the mature follicle and the ovary wall in hope of fertilization

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cervical cancer

common malignancy of the female reproductive system

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most important risk factor of cervical cancer

  • human papillomavirus (HPV)

    • vaccine available for 4 most common types

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pap smear

  • detects cervical cancer in early stage

  • epithelial cells scraped from the cervix edge

  • examined for abnormal development

  • if cancerous cells are present, a portion of the cervix is removed

    • if invasive the uterus is removed (hysterectomy)

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vagina

  • fibromuscular tube

  • 3 tunics

    • mucosa

      • nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium

      • highly vascularized and acidic

    • muscularis

      • 2 layers of smooth muscle

    • adventitia

      • inner elastic fiber

      • outer layer of areolar CT

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vagina function

birth, penis, and menstruation canal

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vulva components

  • mons pubis

  • labia majora

  • labia minora

  • vestibule

  • bulb of the vestible (clit)

  • greater vestibular glands

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clitoris

  • body, crus, glans

  • 2 erectile bodies

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mammary gland

  • each is located within the anterior thoracic wall

  • composed of the tubuloalveolar exocrine gland

  • secretory product = breast milk

    • proteins, fats, and lactose sugar for infant nutrition

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mammary gland 3 hormones/processes

  • lactation

  • prolactin

  • oxytocin

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lactation

  • release of breast milk

  • occurs in response to internal and external stimuli

  • start to produce after giving birth

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prolactin

  • produced in the anterior pituitary and responsible for milk production

  • with the increase, the mammary gland forms more and larger alveoli

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oxytocin

  • produced by the hypothalamus and released from the posterior pituitary

  • responsible for milk ejection

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breast cancer

  • occurs in 1 in 8 women in the U.S

  • risk factors

    • family history, longer reproductive span, obesity, nulliparity, late age at first pregnancy, specific genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2)

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male primary reproductive organs

testes

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male accessory reproductive organs

  • ducts and tubules leading from the testes to the penis

  • male accessory glands

  • penis

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the cremaster muscle and dartos muscle are responsible for…

lifting and letting down the testes in response to changes in temperature

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scrotum

responses to temperature changes

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elevated temperature - scrotum response

  • relaxation of the dartos muscle

  • testes move inferiorly + cools testes

  • cremaster muscle relaxes to allow testes to move inferiorly

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decreased temperature - scrotum response

  • contraction of dartos and cremaster muscle

  • testes and scrotum pulled closer to body

  • helps conserve heat

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testes + spermatogenesis

  • relatively small organs housed within the scrotum

  • produces sperm and androgens

  • covered anteriorly and laterally by a serous membrane

  • outer pariteal and visceral layer

  • endocrine cascade along the testes

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seminiferous tubules

  • 4 of them per lobule

  • extremely convoluted

  • release inhibin when sperm count is high

  • FSH increases oocyte and sperm production

  • contain dividing germ cells continuously producing sperm

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blood testes barrier

protects sperm from the body’s defenses

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defense for sperm

  • scrotum

    • temperature regulation

  • blood barrier

  • interstitial spaces

  • interstitial cells

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spermatogonia

  • all sperm develop primordial germ cells

    • primary

    • secondary spermatid

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spermiogenesis

  • final stage of spermatogenesis

  • becomes mature sperm

  • acrosome cap to protect DNA

  • needs to be digestive enzymes, motile and fast

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spermatid

mature sperm

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sperm development

  • golgi phase

  • cap phase

  • tail phase

  • mid piece (mitochondria phase)

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male vs. female gametogenesis

female

  • oocytes arrested in mieosis before birth

  • able to produce until menopause

  • single viable secondary oocyte produced in females

male

  • produce throughout life

  • 4 sperms in males

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duct system

  • R and L testes each have their own set of ducts

  • ciliated columnar and non-ciliated colmnar

  • transport and store sperm as they mature

    • rete testis

    • efferent ductules

    • epididymis

    • ductus deferens

    • ejaculatory duct

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urethra

transports semen from ejactulatory ducts to outside of body

  • prostatic urethra

  • membranous urethra

  • spongy urethra

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epididymis

comma shaped duct that loops back into the testes

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epididymis _____ sperm

store

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testes _____ sperm

make

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ductus deferens

  • sperm enter after leaving epididymis

  • long transport system

  • muscular wall composition

    • 3 layers of smooth muscle

    • contractions aid movements

  • pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

  • outer adventitia

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seminal fluid

  • 3 accessory glands

  • alkaline environment

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seminal fluid is produced by…

produced by seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands

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semen

  • formed from seminal fluid and sperm

  • 200 to 500 million spermatozoa

  • transit time from seminiferous tubules to ejaculate is about 2 weeks

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semen is also called ____ during _____

ejaculate, intercourse

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benign prostatic hyperplasia

non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland

  • common in older men

  • due to hormonal changes in aging males

  • large nodules forming within the prostate and compressing the urethra

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treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia

  • can be treated with drugs

  • may require surgical removal of prostatic enlargement

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symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia

  • frequent urinating at night

  • frequent and painful urination

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prostate cancer

one of the most common malignancies in men over 50

  • forms hard, solid nodules within the prostate

  • asymptomatic early on, later urinary symptoms

  • screening with digital rectal exam + PSA test

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treatment for prostate cancer

radiation therapy or surgical removal

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penis

forms external genitalia with scrotum

  • root

  • body

  • glans

  • prepuce (foreskin)

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sexual response

  • desire (libido)

  • arousal (excitement)

  • orgasm

  • resolution

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men have a _______ period during sexual response

refractory

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birth control

  • plan A

    • birth control (reversible + irreversible)

  • plan b

    • emergency contraceptive

  • plan c

    • abortion (chemical or medical)

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