Exam II

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eukaryotic, multicellular, cells lack cell walls, heterotrophic, sexual reproduction, developmental strategies

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Tags and Description

animal diversity, invertebrates, vertebrates, animal form and function, animal nutrition, gas exchange, osmoregulation

261 Terms

1

eukaryotic, multicellular, cells lack cell walls, heterotrophic, sexual reproduction, developmental strategies

What are the 6 characteristics of animals?

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35

Approximately how many animal phyla are there?

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body plan

set of morphological and developmental traits

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symmetry, tissues, body cavities

groups of animals can be differentiated based on body plans… name 3 we will be looking at

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radial symmetry

symmetry in which an organism is split down it’s central axis and can be cut in more than 2 ways

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bilateral symmetry

symmetry in which an organism is cut from its top into two identical halves

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diploblastic

when you have radial symmetry what type of tissue layers do you have?

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triploblastic

when you have bilateral symmetry what type of tissue layers do you have?

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diploblastic

meaning an organism has 2 layers of tissue (ectoderm, endoderm)

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triploblastic

meaning an organism has 3 tissue layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm)

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cleavage

rapid cell division in zygotes following fertilization which first forms an eight stage cell then a blastula

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blastula

embryonic stage consisting of a multicellular hollow ball of cells produced by cleavage

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gastrula

embryonic stage consisting of different tissue layers; created through gastrulation

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gastrulation

the process in which cells at the surface of the blastula begin to move inwards to a more interior part of the cell

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blastocoel, endoderm, ectoderm, archenteron, blastospore

What does a fully formed gastrula contain?

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ectoderm

outermost tissue layer, forms the covering of the embryo surface

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endoderm

innermost tissue layer; forms the lining of the digestive tube

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mesoderm

middle layer; forms connective tissues

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archenteron

a tube-like cavity formed in animal embryos during gastrulation.

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coelom

the fluid-filled body cavity of an animal that contains the internal organs

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coelomate

an animal which contains a true coelom and has a lining of mesoderm around it

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psuedocoelomate

an animal which does not have a true coelom, has a “fake” coelom and does not have a mesoderm lining

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aceolomate

an animal which has no coelom at all

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protostomy

means first mouth

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deuterostomy

means second mouth

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protostome

which animal body plan?

  • cleavage has an eight-cell stage which is spiral and determinate '

  • in coelom formation it has solid masses of mesoderm split and forms the coelom

  • the blastospore forms the mouth first then the anus

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deuterostome

which animal body plan?

  • eight stage cell is radial and indeterminate

  • in coelom formation folds of archenteron form the coelom

  • the blastospore forms the anus first then the mouth

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B

At what developmental stage should one be able to first distinguish a protostome embryo from a deuterostome embryo?

A) Fertilization B) Cleavage C) Gastrulation D) Coelom formation

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common ancestor

all animals share a ------

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sponges

these are the basal animals

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eumetazoa

this is the clade of animals with true tissues

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bilaterians

most animals are -----

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deuterostomia, ecdysozoa, lophotrochozoa

what are the three major clades of bilaterians

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A

Which of the following is a characteristic unique to animals (not observed in other taxa)? A) gastrulation B) multicellularity C) sexual reproduction D) heterotrophic nutrition

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invertebrates

What accounts for 95% of all known animal species?

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platyhelminthes, syndermata, annedlia, mollusca

List the 4 phyla of Lophotrochozoa

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nematoda, arthropoda

List the 2 phyla of Ecdysozoa

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chordata, echinoderm

List the 2 phyla of Deuterostomia

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D

The most ancient branch point in animal phylogeny is that between its lineages having

A) radial or bilateral symmetry. B) a well-defined head or no head. C) diploblastic or triploblastic embryos. D) true tissues or no tissues

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porifera

  • ‘sponges’

  • basal animals

  • lack true tissues

  • sedentary

  • live in marine or freshwater

  • suspension feeders

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ctenophora

  • comb jellies

  • debate on their phylogeny

  • basal eumetazoans

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cnidaria

  • jellyfish, anemones, corals, hydras

  • radial symmetry

  • diploblastic

  • sessile and motile forms (polyp and medusa)

  • body plan is sac with central digestive compartment

  • single opening as mouth and anus

  • nerve net

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cnidocytes

‘stinging’ cells of cnidaria; an explosive cell containing one large secretory organelle called a cnidocyst that can deliver a sting to other organisms.

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cnidarians

What are the sister taxa to bilaterians?

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acoela

What is the basal bilaterian clade?

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bilaterians

What clade?

  • bilaterial symmetry

  • triploblastic development

  • true coelom

  • digestive tract with two openings

  • central nervous system

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lophotrochozoa

what major clade of the bilaterians?

  • protostomy

  • platyhelminthes

  • syndermata (previously rotifers)

  • annelida

  • mollusca

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platyhelminthes

what lophotrochozoa phyla?

  • ‘flatworms’

  • bilaterial symmetry

  • acoelomate

  • aquatic and damp terrestrial habitats

  • gastrovascular cavity with a single opening

  • some are parasitic

    • trematodes

    • tapeworms

    • flukes

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syndermata (rotifers)

what lophotrochozoa phyla?

  • live in aquatic and damp terrestrial habitats

  • pseudocoelomate

  • digestive tube with separate mouth and anus

  • can reproduce by parthenogenesis

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50

parthenogenesis

females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs

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mollusca

what lophotrochozoa phyla?

  • gastropods, bivalves, cephalopods

  • most are marine

  • coelomate

  • open and closed circulatory systems

  • soft bodied (protected by hard shell)

  • intelligence in cephalopods

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annelida

what lophotrochozoa phyla?

  • 2 groups

    • polychaetes (bristle worms)

    • oligochaetes (earthworms, and leeches

  • bodies composed of fused rings

  • coelomate

  • closed circulatory system

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ecdysozoans

what major clade of bilaterians?

  • protostomy

  • ecdysis

  • cuticle

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ecdysis

shedding of cuticle

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cuticle

tough outer coat (exoskeleton) providing support and protection

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nematoda

what ecdysozoa phyla?

  • ‘roundworms’

  • parasitic

  • reproduce by internal fertilization (sexually)

    • ex: trichinella spp., c. elegans (model organism)

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arthropoda

what ecdysozoa phyla?

  • segmented body plan

  • hard exoskeleton (cuticle)

  • open circulatory system

  • specialized jointed appendages

    • walking

    • feeding

    • sensory reception

    • reproduction

    • defense

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chelicerates, myriapods, crustaceans, hexapods

What are the 4 subphyla of arthropods?

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chelicerates

what subphyla of arthropods?

  • horseshoe crabs

  • scorpions

  • ticks

  • mites

  • spiders

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myriapods

what subphyla of arthropods?

  • centipedes

  • millipedes

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crustaceans

what subphyla of arthropods

  • crabs

  • lobsters

  • shrimps

  • barnacles

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hexapods

what subphyla of arthropods?

  • insects and relatives

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deuterostomia

what major clade of bilaterians?

  • shared developmental characteristics (deuterostomy)

  • radial, indeterminate cleavage

  • formation of the anus from the blastospore

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echinoderms

what deuterostomia phyla?

  • sea stars, sea cucumbers, sand dollars, sea urchines

  • slow moving or sessile marine animals

  • endoskeleton of ossicles

  • hydrostatic skeleton

  • external sexual reproduction

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chordates

what deuterostomia phyla?

  • has 4 defining characteristics

    • notochord

    • dorsal, hollow nerve cord

    • pharyengeal slits

    • post anal tail

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D

Which of the following combinations of phylum and description is incorrect?

A) Nematoda–roundworms, pseudocoelomate B) Cnidaria–radial symmetry, polyp and medusa body forms C) Platyhelminthes–flatworms, gastrovascular cavity, acoelomate D) Porifera–gastrovascular cavity, coelom present

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notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, post anal tail

What are the 4 main derived characteristics of chordates?

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D

Why are humans considered members of the chordates when we have no notochord, pharyngeal slits, or muscular, post-anal tail?

A) Basal chordates show all of these traits. B) Other similar traits appear in humans. C) Our nerve cord has replaced the notochord. D) These chordate traits appear in human embryos

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69

cephalochordata

  • lancelets

  • look like anchovies but not an actual fish

  • filter feeders, buriers posterior end to absorb water and any nutrients to get “food”

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cephalochordata

what is the basal chordate?

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tunicates

  • previously urochordata

  • adults are filter feeders

  • a group of marine animals that spend most of their lives attached to docks, rocks or the undersides of boats

  • has a larval stage

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craniates

  • chordates with a head

  • derived characters

    • skull

    • brain

    • eyes and other sense organs

    • heightened metabolism (sophisticated circulatory system)

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myxini

  • hagfishes

  • has slime glands which produce slime as a defensive mechanism

  • could argue they have a vertebral column but not true vertebrates

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vertebrates

  • craniates with a backbone

  • derived character of ------ is a vertebrae (encloses spinal cord)

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petromyzontoda

  • lampreys

  • true fish on bottom of sea floor

  • have a “suction cup” mouth

    • circular array of teeth

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gnathostomes

vertebrates with jaws

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chondrichthyans

jawed cartilaginous fishes; whole skeleton made of cartilage

  • ex: blacktip reef shark, southern sting ray

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osteichthyans

  • bony fishes

  • gnathostomes with bony endoskeleton

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actinopterygii

  • rayed-finned fishes

  • fin has very thin rays called fin rays which are directly attached to radials

    • ex: tuna, salmon, sea horse, red lionfish

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sarcopterygii

  • lobed-finned fishes

  • 2 phyla -- actinista, dipnoi

  • the fins come off a small bone

  • somewhat homologous to human limbs

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tetrapod

  • sarcopterygians with limbs

  • derived characters

    • four limbs with digits

    • neck allowing separate movement of head

    • fusion of pelvic girdle to the backbone

    • ears for detecting airborne sounds

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amphibians

  • these have simple eggs with the embryo surrounded by a jelly coat

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amniotes

these are tetrapods with amniotic eggs

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reptiles

  • derived characteristics

    • scales that create a waterproof barrier

    • shelled eggs, laid on land

  • include lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodilians and birds

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lepidosaurs, archosaurs

what are the two main clades of reptiles?

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lepidosaurs

this reptilian clade includes tuataras and squamates (lizards and snakes)

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archosaurs

this reptilian clade includes crocodilians, extinct dinosaurs and birds

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anapsids

what are turtles?

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pterosauria

sister taxa to dinosauria, flying dinosaurs

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ornithischia

  • “bird-hipped” dinosaurs

  • walk on 4 legs

  • herbivores

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saurischia

  • “lizard-hipped” dinosaurs

  • herbivores and carnivores

  • includes sauropods and theropods

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sauropod

what saurischia dinosaur?

  • herbivore

  • long necked dinosaurs

  • can be dozens of meters long

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theropods

what saurischia dinosaur?

  • carnivores

  • has teeth and claws

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aves

  • birds

  • saurischia

  • derived characters

    • forelimbs develop into wings

    • keratinized feathers

    • hollow skeletons

    • loss of teeth

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95

mammals

  • amniotes with hair

  • derived characters

    • mammary glands

    • hair

    • high metabolic rate

    • large relative brain size

    • differentiated teeth

  • three main groups: monotremes, euthaerians, marsupials

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monotremes

egg laying mammals

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marsupials

mammals that have pouches that give birth early

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eutharians

placental mammals (ex:humans)

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B

Which choice best describes a reasonable mechanism for animal structures becoming better suited over evolutionary time to specific functions?

A) Animals with parents that continually try to improve their offspring's structures will become more abundant. B) Animals with mutations that increase their ability to reproduce will become more abundant. C) Animals that eat the most food become the most abundant. D) Animals with inventions that curtail reproduction will become more abundant.

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anatomy

the study of the biological form of an organism

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