Joyner Midterm - U.S. Government

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Montesquieu

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1

Montesquieu

Enlightenment thinker who believed that the best form of the social contract was one in which a clear separation of powers within the government would inevitably lead to a system of checks and balances

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2

John Locke

Thought best form of the social contract was where the people in the government are in agreement that the governed’s rights are honored

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3

Thomas Hobbes

Thought best form of social contract was for people to surrender some of their natural freedoms to a monarch to ensure their protection and social stability

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4

Jean Jacques Rousseau

Enlightenment thinker who advocated for a social contract that would protect citizens by directly governing in accordance with the concept of popular sovereignty

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5

Latinos

largest minority group in the U.S. after early 21st century

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6

Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, Protestant Reformation

major sources of influence for America’s Constitutional Framers when formulating the American system of government

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7

One’s body, one’s physical property, and the fruit of one’s labor

John Locke considered these as estate

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8

Moderates/independents

Political science polling has repeatedly indicated that approximately 35 to 40 percent of Americans (the largest single group of those listed below) are most ideologically classifiable as

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9

Libertarians

Ones who believe in as little government as possible, particularly as it relates to economic regulation of the free market

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10

Liberals

Environmental protection laws that regulate waste disposal procedures for large industries, government-funded programs that seek to provide financial relief for impoverished citizens, social justice organizations that seek to raise awareness of racial discrimination in America

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11

Conservatives

They believe that the most effective method of solving a problem involving government is to let state governments individually deal with it, not the federal government

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12

Moderates

A mix of all the political parties; kind of like a pick-and-choose which traits they like

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13

Poor people

In Tracy Chapman’s song, “Talkin’ Bout’ a Revolution,” explicit references are made to _______________ starting a revolution due to American society’s failure to recognize their struggle for equal and fair treatment

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14

Jean Jacques Rousseau

“Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in chains.”

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15

Increasing

The average life expectancy of Americans has been

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16

Thomas Hobbes

In an original state of nature with no government or laws, everyone suffered "from continued fear and danger of violent death; and the life of man [was] solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”

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17

Rome

The decision to include, what was originally, an appointed group Senators in the upper-house of America's bicameral Congress was most directly inspired by a similar political experiment in what country?

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18

Vietnam War veterans

Bruce Springsteen’s song, “Born in the U.S.A.” criticizes the nationalist and militaristic components of American political culture by referencing the difficult experiences of ______________________.

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19

Equality of opportunity

In the Brooks and Dunn song, “Only in America,” the line which states:  “We all get a chance.  Everybody gets to dance” reflects a cultural attachment that many Americans have to the American Dream and the concept of ____________.

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20

Majority in the Electoral College

How is the winner of a U.S. Presidential election determined?

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21

False

The Affordable Care Act (aka Obamacare) overhauled and replaced America's privately-operated, for-profit insurance system by replacing it with a universally-accessible, single payer government insurance program.

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22

Solon and Cleisthenes

Direct, participatory is credited to what Athenian leaders?

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23

False

The Equal Rights Amendment was ratified and made a part of the Constitution as the 27th Amendment

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24

17th Amendment

allows voters to cast direct votes for U.S. senators

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25

Marbury v. Madison

U.S. Supreme Court decision that established judicial review.

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26

McCulloch v. Maryland

U.S. Supreme Court decision that prohibited state governments from taxing federal entities

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27

Fletcher v. Peck

U.S. Supreme Court decision that affirmed the federal government's commitment to making sure that states honored the contract clause of the U.S. Constitution

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28

Gibbons v. Ogden

U.S. Supreme Court decision that affirmed the federal government's enumerated power to oversee and and regulate interstate commerce

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29

Korematsu v. U.S.

U.S. Supreme Court decision that initially deemed a wartime bill of attainder to be constitutional

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30

Dred Scott v. Sanford

U.S. Supreme Court decision that indicated federal support for the concept of dual federalism

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31

Lemon Test

A law or action must have a secular purpose, neither advance nor prohibit religion, not foster excessive government entanglement with religion.

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32

Barron v. Baltimore

U.S. Supreme Court decision that established that the Bill of Rights did not apply to state courts.

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33

Gitlow v. New York

U.S. Supreme Court decision that overturned Barron v. Baltimore and established that the Bill of Rights could be incorporated into the states.

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34

Enumerated Powers

central gov -

  • lay and collect taxes, duties, and imposts

  • provide for the common defense and general welfare of the united states

  • borrow money on the credit of the united states

  • coin money and regulate its value

  • establish uniform rules of naturalization

  • establish uniform rules regarding bankruptcy

  • declare war, and raise and maintain armies and navies

  • call the militia to suppress any rebellion or insurrections

  • regulate commerce with foreign nations, among the states, and with native americans

state gov -

  • determine the times, places, and manners for holding elections for representatives

  • appoint electors for president

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35

Implied Powers

central gov -

  • “necessary and proper” clause

    • central government can make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers

    • federal government can not do whatever the hell they want because this has to reconcile with one of the enumerated powers

    • one of the enumerated powers “provide for the common defense and general welfare of the united states” can be a bit of a loophole

  • state gov -

    • 10th amendment: “the powers not delegated to the united states [federal gov] by the constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively or to the people.”

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Concurrent Powers

  • tax

  • borrow money

  • make and inforce laws

  • establish courts

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37

Denied Powers

central gov -

  • suspend habeus corpus except in cases of rebellion or invasion

  • pass bills of attainder or ex post facto laws

  • lay a tax or duty on items exported from any state

  • show preference (favoritism) to the port of one state over another

  • spend money without appropriation

  • grant titles of nobility

state gov -

  • pass bills of attainder or ex post facto laws

  • enter into treaties, alliances, or confederations

  • coin money or make alternate forms of money

  • lay imposts or duties unless explicitly allowed by congress

  • keep troops or ships of war, nor can they declare war

  • enter into compacts or agreements with other states or foreign powers

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38

Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)

Made it so there were four different ways to get insurance: through employer’s group plan, medicare, medicaid, or to get insurance on the open market place. Originally included the individual mandate provision that made people pay a fee if they didn’t have health insurance

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39

Individual mandate provision

Former President Donald Trump signed into law an act that nullified ____________________ within the Affordable Care Act.

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40

Ronald Reagan

His "devolution revolution" promised to reduce the size and influence of the federal government and return more sovereignty to state governments

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41

Lyndon B. Johnson

His "Great Society" initiatives dictated how states could spend federal money provided in the form of categorical grants

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42

Franklin D. Roosevelt

His "Second Bill of Rights" indicated a very strong commitment to an active, interventionist federal government and the concept of cooperative federalism

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43

Bill Clinton

Part of his Presidential legacy involved working with a Congress dominated by his opposing party and passing a number of bipartisan laws that granted more sovereignty to states.

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44

Barack Obama

His Presidential legacy is heavily tied to the passage of the Affordable Care Act.

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45

Federal system

Sovereignty is theoretically shared between the state and federal governments

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46

Confederate system

power distributed between state governments (think articles of confederation), and central policies only when they’re all affected, other than that state govts on their own

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47

Unitary system

sovereignty almost exclusively rests in the central government

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48

True

After a Constitutional amendment has been formally proposed, it needs either a favorable vote in 3/4 of state legislatures or a favorable vote in 3/4 of specially-called state ratifying conventions in order to be ratified and officially added to the Constitution.

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49

Assistance for Families with Dependent Children

Altered by the legislative reforms associated with the Contract with America

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50

Provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States

Despite its controversial nature, the legislation that was originally called the USA PATRIOT Act has never been completely repealed, but instead amended and reauthorized due to its fundamental objective to execute which of the following enumerated constitutional powers?

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51

False

The informal Constitutional amendment process is primarily carried out by the Congress and the President of the United States through the passage of new laws

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52

10th Amendment

Thomas Jefferson thought that the creation of the Bank of the United States would be unconstitutional because of…

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53

The Contract with America

Newt Gingrich, during his time in Congress, developed

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54

Miranda v. Arizona

U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld and reaffirmed individual protections against self-incrimination

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55

Gaines v. Canada

U.S. Supreme Court case that forced states to fully comply with  "separate but equal" doctrine in the field of higher education

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56

Plessy v. Ferguson

U.S. Supreme Court case that first recognized and established the "separate but equal" doctrine

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57

Brown v. Board of Education

U.S. Supreme Court case that officially overturned the "separate but equal" doctrine

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58

Obergfell v. Hodges

U.S. Supreme Court case that ruled anti-gay marriage laws to be unconstitutional

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59

7th Amendment

Amendment that guarantees the right to a jury trial in civil cases

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60

3rd Amendment

Amendment that prohibits troops from quartering themselves in the homes of private citizens without consent

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61

4th Amendment

Amendment that has sparked debate over warrantless searches of suspected terrorists

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62

8th Amendment

Amendment that has sparked debated over the death penalty and torture of of suspected terrorist detainees

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63

14th Amendment

Amendment with an equal protection clause that essentially represents the constitutional foundation of all civil rights protections for Americans

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64

How celebrities win libel and slander cases in the U.S.

The information in question was entirely false, the person(s) accused of libel or slander knew that the information in question was entirely false and still recklessly disseminated the information, and the libel or slander in question was communicated with malicious intent

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65

9th Amendment

Implied rights to privacy

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66

Exclusionary Rule

Keeps illegally obtained evidence from being admitted in court

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67

They settle outside of court

Why do many civil court cases never require a jury?

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68

Symbolic and hate speech

Protected forms of speech under the 1st Amendment

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69

3rd and 7th Amendments

Amendments that have not been incorporated

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70

Higher education

Where NAACP challenged racial discrimination first

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71

NSA

Edward Snowden leaked classified government info about the actions of the -

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72

Roper v. Simmons

U.S. Supreme Court case which ruled executing individuals for capital offenses committed when the convicted individual was a minor was unconstitutional

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73

Gideon v. Wainwright

U.S. Supreme Court case which ruled that the 6th Amendment, the right to an attorney, was applicable in state courts as well as federal courts.

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74

Tests obscenity

LAPS test

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75

Things police can search without a warrant

Things in the immediate control of a person being arrested for theft, in plain view of a person being arrested for possession of illegal narcotics, reasonably suspicious individuals at the scene of a homicide

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76

Hernandez v. Texas

U.S. Supreme Court case which expanded the racial profile of the United States after the defendant said that he didn’t a jury of his peers (Mexican-Americans) which were legally considered Black.

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77

U.S. military veterans

Group that was the most influential in getting Congress to draft and pass the Americans with Disabilities Act

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78

Roe v. Wade

U.S. Supreme Court case which ruled anti-abortion laws to be unconstitutional

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79

Lawrence v. Texas

U.S. Supreme Court case that ruled anti-sodomy laws to be unconstitutional

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80

Griswold v. Connecticut

U.S. Supreme Court case that made the prohibition of contraceptives unconstitutional

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81

Heller v. D.C.

U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld an individual's right to keep and bear arms

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82

U.S. v. Miller

U.S. Supreme Court case that denied an individual's right to bear arms since it had nothing to do with the necessity of a having a well-regulated militia

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83

5th Amendment

Right to remain silent, compensation for property seized by the government for public use

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84

Civil Rights Act of 1964

Desegration of public places, an end to discriminatory practices on the basis of race, religion, and sex, etc., the creation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)

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85

Glossip v. Gross

Constitutionality of administering lethal injections to inmates sentences with the death penalty.

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86

Grover Norquist

Founder of Americans for Tax Reform

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87

Enumerated powers of the President

Pardoning, appointment, treaty-making

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88

Going public

When a President bypasses Congress by directly asking the general public for support of his or her agenda

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89

Andrew Johnson, Bill Clinton, Donald Trump

Presidents who have been impeached by the House of Representatives

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90

Select committees

Congressional committee that is temporarily formed to address special legislative issues

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91

Joint committees

committee where members of house and senate work together to address an issue

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92

Standing commitees

permanent committee - permanent issues like defense and allocation of funds

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93

Original jurisdiction

Jurisdiction of Virginia State District Courts

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94

None

Donation limit to a Super PAC

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95

Delegate

When Congressional representatives vote entirely in accordance with the needs and demands of his or her home constituents

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96

Politico

will usually do whatever is politically expedient; most members of congress fall into this category

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97

Trustee

an individual who votes in accordance with their own agenda, they do whatever they want

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98

Mark Warner, Tim Kaine

Virginia senators

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99

Franklin D. Roosevelt

U.S. President who officially created the Executive Office of the Presidency (EOP)

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100

Thomas Jefferson

First U.S. President to sanction a major expenditure without first obtaining Congressional consent

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