ap csp ap exam

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computing innovation

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150 Terms

1

computing innovation

  • executes a program as a fundamental part of its function

  • can be physical, non-physical software, or non-physical concepts

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computing system

group of computing devices & programs working together for a common purpose

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3

algorithm

  • step-by-step procedure that solves a problem/executes a form of computation

  • each step must be precise, unambiguous & doable

  • can be expressed using only sequence, selection, and repetition

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program

  • code statements/sequence of instructions that controls a computer

  • CPU executes it one instruction at a time

  • allows users to gain insight & knowledge about data

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application programming interface (API)

  • Defines how other programs/web services can use it and communicate with it

  • Specifies how procedures in a library behave and can be used

  • Useful for real-time data that changes frequently

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control structure

programming language statements that control the flow of a computer program

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sequence control structure (sequencing)

application of each step of an algorithm in the order the steps are given

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selection control structure

uses a Boolean condition to determine which 2 parts of an algorithm are used

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repetition control structure

repeating of an algorithm for a specified number of times until a condition is met

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input

  • -data sent to a computer for processing by a program

  • can be tactile, audible, visual, or text

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output

  • -data sent back by a program to a device

  • can be tactile, audible, visual, or text

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user interface (UI)

computer application in which a user interacts with a program

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function

  • -behavior of a program when it is executed

  • what the code carries out when running

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purpose

  • -the problem a program is intending to solve

  • the interest the program is pursuing

  • the reason why the program is being written

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event-driven programming

  • -program activated by events like button clicks

  • events supply input data to a program, triggering blocks of code in a program that influence its behavior

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integrated development environment (IDE)

  • -software that provides tools for programming (i.e. UI design, code editing)

  • provides a way to interpret and run the program

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hardware

  • -electronic and mechanical components that execute the instructions of a computer program

  • works together with software

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software

  • -computer programs or code that control the hardware

  • serves as interface between an individual and their computer

  • works together with hardware

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19

computer

machine that processes information under control of a program

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general purpose computer

  • -runs on many different platforms (i.e programs, apps)

  • includes smartphones and tablets

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special purpose computer

  • -contains a fixed program, only allowing it to run a single set program

  • Includes calculators, watches, a car’s anti-lock braking system

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central processing unit

  • -hardware that processes the program’s instructions, executing arithmetic and logic operations

  • carries out the instructions of a computer program

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random access memory

temporarily stores the computer’s programs and data while the power is on

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computer chip (integrated circuit/IC)

  • -contains millions of electronic circuits

  • integrates billions of transistors and logic gates

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storage devices

permanently stores data even while the computer is off (i.e. disk drives, flash drives, CDs)

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memory

physical device used to store information for use in a computer or other digital electronic device (i.e. disk drive, flash drive)

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disk drive

randomly addressable & rewritable storage device

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compiler

software that translates human readable code (source code) into binary code

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motherboard

houses all of the computer’s main electronic components

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input devices

transfers information into the computer’s memory (i.e. touchscreen, mic)

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output devices

transfers information out of the memory (i.e. touchscreen, speaker)

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network

group of two or more computers linked together

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low-level language (machine language)

  • -programming language that is machine readable (1’s and 0’s)

  • -closer to the machine hardware

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high-level language (pseudocode)

  • -programming language that is readable by humans, providing the programmer with easy to understand abstractions

  • blend of english and code

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35

Moore’s law

number of transistors per sq. in. on ICs will roughly double every 2 years since its invention

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36

data

  • distinct information formatted uniquely (i.e. text on paper, bytes stored in electronic memory)

  • Provides opportunities for identifying trends, making connections, & addressing problems

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metadata

  • -Data about data

  • -Used for finding, organizing, and managing information

  • -Increases the effective use of data or data sets by providing additional information

  • -Allows data to be structured and organized

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analog data

values that change smoothly, rather than in discrete intervals, over time (i.e. pitch and volume of music, colors of a painting, position of a runner)

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big data

  • Data sets that are too large to fit on a normal computer/be processed by a standard spreadsheet/database program

  • May require parallel systems

  • Size of a data set affects the amount of information that can be extracted from it

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bit

  • -binary digit

  • -smallest unit of data

  • 1 or 0

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parity bit

  • -bit that acts on a set of binary values

  • added to the leftmost bit of a string of bits to ensure the number of bits are even or odd

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byte

group of 8 bits

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run-length encoding

  • -compression algorithm that represents an image by the length of runs of identical pixels

  • lossless compression technique

  • used in bitmap (BMP) images

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44

image compression

  • -Data compression that reduces the number of bits of transmitted or stored data

  • -Size reduction depends on the number of bits/pixels, number of diff. colors in the image, amount of redundancy in the original data representation, and the application of the compression algorithm

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lossless compression

  • -Data compression technique in which no data is lost i.e. RLE

  • Used in BMP images

  • Used when the quality/ability to reconstruct the image is important

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lossy compression

  • -Data compression technique in which some data is lost i.e. JPEG

  • Greater size reduction than lossless compression

  • Used when minimization of data size/transmission time is important

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47

compilation

  • -process of translating an entire source into a single binary file

  • more efficient

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48

interpretation

  • -process of translating source code into machine language one instruction at a time

  • immediately executes each instruction

  • easier to debug

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49

abstraction

  • -general and simplified representation of something

  • formed by the inclusion of details necessary to make the abstraction useful

  • reduces complexity, making computer systems easier to use and understand

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data abstraction

  • -Separates the abstract properties of a data type and the concrete details of its representation

  • Manages complexity by giving a collection of data a name without referencing its specific details

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51

procedural abstraction

  • -Organizing and encapsulating algorithms in named procedures that can be called by name

  • Makes program smaller, easier to read, and allows for code reuse

  • Form of refactoring

  • Allows programmers to change the internals of the procedure without needing to notify users of the change

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refactoring

  • -process of restructuring program code without changing its behavior

  • simplifies design, making it easier to read & maintain

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53

tag/value pairs

  • -stores data

  • tag has to be a string

  • -value can be a number, string, or list that is stored & retrieved by their tag

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54

variable

  • -names a memory location to hold many values in a program

  • data abstraction (has associated data storage)

  • stores data in the computer's main memory (RAM)

  • data is volatile

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55

bug

-error in computer hardware or software

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56

simulation

-Mimics real-world events with the purpose of drawing inferences

-Involves removing specific details/simplifying functionality.

-Facilitates the formulation & refinement of hypotheses related to the objects/phenomena under consideration.

-Computer simulations usually make some simplifying assumptions about the real-world object being modeled.

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57

Internet

  • network of networks in which host computers are connected by routers

  • governed by the Internet Protocol Suite

  • based on open standards, enabling it to grow exponentially

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protocol

system of rules that govern the behavior of a system

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TCP/IP

routes messages between the clients & servers finding a path from the sender to the receiver

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HTTP

  • system of rules that govern the WWW application

  • ensures secure, trusted, encrypted communication over the Internet

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World Wide Web (WWW)

  • -Internet application that stores a collection of documents, images, and resources based on HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

  • Accessed through a browser

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browser

  • -program that displays web pages

  • used to navigate the WWW

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cookies

-Small files or bits of data that are stored on your computer.

-Placed when you access a site

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data privacy

assures that personal/corporate confidential information is collected, used, protected & destroyed legally & fairly

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65

personally identifiable information

-information about an individual that identifies, links, relates, is unique to, or describes them.

-i.e. social security number, age, race, phone number(s)

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66

digital divide

  • gap between those who have access to the Internet & computers with those who do not

  • usually affected by socioeconomic, geographic, or demographic characteristics

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67

bandwidth

  • rate at which data is downloaded/uploaded in a network

  • measured in bits per second, kilobits per second, or megabits per second

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latency

  • measure of the amount of time it takes for a piece of data to reach its destination

  • measured in milliseconds

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69

router

transmits data between 2 different networks

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70

cable modem (DSL modem)

connects a home to an Internet Service Provider (ISP)

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71

ethernet

uses wires to connect computers

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port

memory location in a server’s RAM that is connected to software that listens for incoming requests

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LAN

connects computers within a small area i.e. home/school

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wifi (wifi network)

uses radiowaves to connect devices

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internetwork

collection of disparate networks that are connected together via routers

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76

redundancy

  • The inclusion of extra components that can be used to mitigate the failure of a system if other components fail

  • Network redundancy can be accomplished by having more than 1 path between any 2 connected devices

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client

computer/software application that requests services from a server located on the internet i.e. web browser

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server

host that provides a service i.e. Google’s Gmail service

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host

computer that is connected to the Internet i.e. servers

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80

packet

  • collection of data used by TCP/IP protocol to transmit data across the Internet

  • contains routing data & content of the message

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81

Application Layer

  • Composes a message & passes it to the Transport Layer

  • Receives other messages passed on from the Transport Layer

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Transport Layer

  • Splits a message into packets, adds TCP headers to number the packets, & sends it to the Internet Layer

  • Receives packets from the Internet Layer, places them in order, & passes it to the Application Layer when all is received

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Internet Layer

  • Adds the destination IP address to each packet & passes it to the Link Layer

  • Receives packets from the Link Layer & checks to see if it is their IP address

    • If it is, it passes it to the Transport Layer

    • If not, it sends it back to the Link Layer to pass on to another IP address

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Link Layer

  • Sends the individual packets to the Link Layers of other IP addresses

  • Receives packets from other addresses & passes them to the Internet Layer

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85

IP address

String of numbers separated by periods that identifies each computer using Internet Protocol to communicate over a network

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86

domain name

hierarchical name that identifies a domain & institution on the Internet i.e. .com, .edu, .gov

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hostname

domain name that is associated with an IP address

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domain name system (DNS)

Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses

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89

cryptography

  • “secret writing”

  • art & science of writing secret message

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90

public key cryptography

uses two keys: a public key known to everyone & a private/secret key known only to the recipient of the message.

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encryption

process of using a secret key to convert plaintext into ciphertext

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symmetric encryption

the same key is used for encryption and decryption

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asymmetric encryption

separate but related keys are used for encryption & decryption.

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decryption

process of using a secret key to convert ciphertext into plaintext

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cipher

system for creating a new alphabet/secret messages

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substitution cipher

letters from a ciphertext alphabet are substituted for letters in a plaintext message systematically

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Caesar cipher

shifts the alphabet by 3 letters to create cipher alphabet, substituting plain letters with shifted letters

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98

open standard

  • -Standards openly available to the public

  • Allows devices, services, and applications to work together across a widespread network of networks

  • Created and managed through public processes by open international communities

  • Key for the exponential growth of the Internet

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99

blacklist

list of email addresses or IP addresses for organizations that are known to be spammers.

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whitelist

list of email addresses or IP addresses for organizations that are known to be spam free

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