MSK Review 2

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What is the lateral border of the Infratemporal fossa?

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1

What is the lateral border of the Infratemporal fossa?

Mandibular ramus

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2

What is the anterior border of the Infratemporal fossa?

Posterior aspect of maxilla

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3

What is the superior border of the Infratemporal fossa?

Inferior surface of the greater wing of the Sphenoid bine

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4

What is the posterior border of the Infratemporal fossa?

Tympanic plate, mastoid process, & styloid process of temporal bone

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5

What is the inferior border of the Infratemporal fossa?

Medial pterygoid muscle attachment at the angle of the mandible

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6

What is the medial border of the Infratemporal fossa?

Lateral pterygoid plate

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7

What are the contents of the Infratemporal fossa?

  • Temporalis muscle

  • Lateral & medial pterygoid muscles

  • Mandibular nerve & its inferior alveolar, lingual, & buccal branches

  • Otic ganglion

  • Chorda tympani (CN VII branch)

  • Maxillary artery & majority of its branches

  • Pterygoid venous plexus

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8

What are the muscles of mastication?

  • Temporalis

  • Masseter

  • Medial pterygoid

  • Lateral pterygoid

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9

What innervates the muscles of mastication?

Motor root of the mandibular nerve (CN V3)

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10

What muscles of mastication are outside the Infratemporal fossa?

Temporalis (majority) & masseter

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11

What muscle of mastication elevates (closes) & retracts mandible?

Temporalis

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12

What muscle of mastication elevates (closes) & protracts mandible?

Masseter

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13

What muscle of mastication protracts & depresses (open) mandible & contributes to the chewing motion?

Lateral pterygoid

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14

What muscle of mastication elevates (closes) & protracts mandible & contributes to the chewing motion?

Medial pterygoid

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15

What is the classification of the TMJ?

Ginglymoarthrodial synovial joint (hinge & plane joints) + diarthrosis

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16

What are articulating sturctures of the TMJ?

  • Mandibular fossa of temporal bone

  • Articular tubercle of temporal bone

  • Head of mandibular condyle

  • Articular disc

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17

What is the arterial supply to the TMJ?

  • Superficial temporal artery

  • Deep auricular artery

  • WhatAnterior tympanic artery

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18

What is the innervation of the TMJ?

  • Auriculotemporal nerve (posterior division of CN V3)

  • Posterior deep temporal nerve (anterior division of CN V3)

  • Masseteric nerve (anterior division of CN V3)

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19

What depresses the TMJ?

  • Lateral pterygoid (prime mover)

  • Suprahyoid & infrahyoid

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20

What elevates the TMJ?

  • Temporalis (prime mover)

  • Masseter (prime mover)

  • Medial pterygoid (prime mover)

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21

What protrudes the TMJ?

  • Lateral pterygoid (prime mover)

  • Medial pterygoid (prime mover)

  • Masseter

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22

What retrudes the TMJ?

  • Posterior fibers of Temporalis muscle (prime mover)

  • Masseter

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23

What laterally deviates the TMJ ipsilaterally?

  • Posterior fibers of Temporalis muscle

  • Digastric

  • Mylohyoid

  • Geniohyoid

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24

What laterally deviates the TMJ contralaterally?

  • Lateral pterygoid (prime mover)

  • Medial pterygoid (prime mover)

  • Middle fibers of Temporalis muscle

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25
<p>What is structure 1?</p>

What is structure 1?

Anterior tympanic artery

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26
<p>What is structure 2?</p>

What is structure 2?

Deep auricular artery

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27
<p>What is structure 3?</p>

What is structure 3?

Lateral pterygoid muscle

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28
<p>What is structure 4?</p>

What is structure 4?

Superficial temporal artery

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29

What provides motor innervation to the tongue?

Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) except palatoglossus which is the Vagus nerve (X)

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30

What provides sensory innervation to the tongue?

Lingual nerve & chorda tympani

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31

Where does the Frontal sinus drain?

Middle meatus of the nasal cavity

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32

Where does the Sphenoid sinus drain?

Sphenoid-ethmoidal recess

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33

Where does the Ethmoidal sinus drain?

  • Anterior & middle - middle meatus

  • Posterior - superior meatus

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34

Where does the Maxillary sinus drain?

Inferior meatus of the nasal cavity

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35

What cranial nerves mediate gestation within the tongue?

Facial nerve & glossopharyngeal nerve (CN VII & CN IX)

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36

What cranial nerves mediate speech & sound production + mastication & swallowing within the tongue?

Vagus nerve & hypoglossal nerve (CN X & CN XII)

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37

What cranial nerves mediate touch within the tongue?

Lingual nerve & glossopharyngeal nerve (branch of CN V3 & CN IX)

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38

What is the superiorly attached to the Hyoid bone?

Oral cavity

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39

What is the inferiorly attached to the Hyoid bone?

Larynx

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40

What is the posteriorly attached to the Hyoid bone?

Pharynx

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41

What is the Superficial cervical fascia & what does it contain?

Layer between the dermis & deep cervical fascia:

  • Neurovascular supplies

  • Superficial veins

  • Superficial lymph nodes

  • Fat

  • Platysma muscle

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42

What is the Deep cervical fascia & what are its layers?

Layer deep to the superficial fascia & patysma muscle:

  • Investing

  • Pretracheal

  • Prevertebral

  • Carotid sheath

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43

What fascia surrounds the Cervical vertebral column & the scalene muscles, prevertebral muscles, & the deep muscles of the back?

Prevertebral layer of the Deep cervical fascia

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44

What neurovascular bundles of the neck does the Carotid sheath enclose?

  • Common carotid artery

  • Internal jugular vein

  • Vagus nerve

  • Accompanying cervical lymph node

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45

What are the Superficial muscles of the neck?

  • Sternocleidomastoid (sternal & clavicular heads)

  • Platysma

  • Trapezius

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46

What Superficial muscles of the neck are innervated by the Spinal accesseory nerve (CN XI) & ventral rami of C2-C4?

  • Sternocleidomastoid (sternal & clavicular heads)

  • Trapezius

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47

What is the Platysma innervated by?q

Cervical branch of facial nerve (CN VII)

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48

What is the unilateral function of the Sternocleidomastoid?

Lateral flexion of neck toward the ipsilateral shoulder & simutaneously rotates head so the face is turned superiorly toward contralateral side

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49

What is the bilateral function of the Sternocleidomastoid?

Flexes head & cervical vertebrae of neck

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50

What is different between the Sternocleidomastoid sternal head & clavicular head?

Origin - upper part of anterior surface of manubrium & upper part & anterior surface of medial 1/3 of clavicle

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51

What is the function of the Platysma?

Depress angle of mouth & draw skin of the neck superiorly to prod. expressions of sadness, anxiety, or fright

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52

What is the function of the Trapezius?

  • Unilateral does lateral flexion to ipsilateral shoulder & bilateral extends neck

  • Retracts & depresses scapula, descending & ascending fibers superiorly rotate scapula

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53

What are the Suprahyoid muscles of the neck?

  • Stylohyoid - CN VII & pulls hyoid up

  • Digastric (ant.) - CN V3 & opens mouth/lowers mandible + raises hyoid bone

  • Digastric (post.) - CN VII & pulls hyoid up & back

  • Mylohyoid - CN V3 & elevate floor of mouth & hyoid

  • Geniohyoid - CN XII & pulls hyoid forward & mandible down/inward

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54

What are the Infrahyoid muscles of the neck?

  • Omohyoid & sterno__hyoid__ (superficial)

  • Sterno__thyroid__ & thyrohyoid

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55

Where does the Brachial plexus & subclavian artery pass between & what is this important for?

Anterior & middle scalene muscles for interscalene blocks

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56

What is located posterior to the Anterior scalene muscle?

Subclavian artery

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57

What elevates the 1st & 2nd ribs to increase intrathoracic volume?

Scalene muscles

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58

This muscle originates on posterior tubercles of CIV to CVI, inserts on surface rib II, is innervated by ant. rami of C5 to C7, & elevates rib II:

Posterior scalene

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59

This muscle originates on posterior tubercles of CII to CVII, inserts on upper surface of rib I post. to groove for subclavian, is innervated by ant. rami of C3 to C7, & elevates rib I:

Middle scalene

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60

This muscle originates on anterior tubercles of CIII to CVI, inserts on scalene tubercle & upper surface of rib I, is innervated by ant. rami of C4 to C7, & elevates rib I:

Anterior scalene

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61

What is the superior border of the Anterior triangle?

Inferior border of mandible

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62

What is the lateral border of the Anterior triangle?

Anterior border of sternocleidomastoid

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63

What is the medial border of the Anterior triangle?

Sagittal line down the midline of the neck

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64

What muscles are in the Anterior triangle?

Suprahyoid & infrahyoid muscles

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65

What vessels are in the Anterior triangle?

  • Common carotid artery → ECA & ICA

  • Internal jugular vein

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66

What nerves are in the Anterior triangle?

  • CN VII (facial nerve)

  • CN IX (glossopharyngeal nerve)

  • CN X (vagus nerve)

  • CN XII (hypoglossal nerves)

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67

What are the contents of the Carotid triangle?

  • Common carotid artery

  • Internal jugular nerve

  • CN XII (hypoglossal nerve)

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68

What is the superior border of the Carotid triangle?

Posterior belly of the digastric muscle

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69

What is the lateral border of the Carotid triangle?

Medial border of the Sternocleidomastoid muscle

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70

What is the inferior border of the Carotid triangle?

Superior belly of the Omohyoid muscle

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71

What is the anterior border of the Posterior triangle?

Posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid

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72

What is the posterior border of the Posterior triangle?

Anterior border of the Trapezius

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73

What is the inferior border of the Posterior triangle?

Middle 1/3 of the Clavicle

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74

What is the roof border of the Posterior triangle?

Investing layer of fascia

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75

What is the floor border of the Posterior triangle?

Prevertebral fascia

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76

What are the muscles of the Posterior triangle?

  • Omohyoid muscle

  • Splenius capitis

  • Levator scapulae

  • Scalenes

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77

What are the veins of the Posterior triangle?

  • External jugular vein

  • Subclavian vein

  • Transverse cervical vein

  • Suprascapular vein

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78

What is the blood supply of the Posterior triangle?

  • Subclavian vein

  • Transverse cervical

  • Suprascapular veins

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79

What are the nerves of the Posterior triangle?

  • Accessory nerve (CN XI)

  • Cervical plexus

  • Brachial plexus

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80

The _ enters into the Subclavian vein once it pierces the deep fascia of the clavicular head of the Sternocleidomastoid muscle:

External jugular vein

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81

What forms the Brachiocephalic vein?

Internal jugular vein + subclavian vein

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82

What is the Retromandibular vein formed by?

Superficial temporal vein + maxillary vein with the parotid gland

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83

What does the anterior division of the Retromandibular vein divide into?

Facial vein & common facial vein

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84

What does the posterior division of the Retromandibular vein divide into?

External jugular vein

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85

What are the direct branches of the ECA?

  • Superior thyroid artery

  • Ascending pharyngeal artery

  • Lingual artery

  • Facial nerve

  • Occipital artery

  • Posterior auricular artery

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86

What are the terminal branches of the ECA?

  • Maxillary artery

  • Superficial temporal artery

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87
<p>What is the structure 1 &amp; its function?</p>

What is the structure 1 & its function?

Superficial temporal artery, terminating branch of ECA, & supplies the Temporal region

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88
<p>What is the structure 2 &amp; its function?</p>

What is the structure 2 & its function?

Transverse facial artery, branch of the Superficial temporal artery, & supplies the cheek & parotid gland

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89
<p>What is the structure 3 &amp; its function?</p>

What is the structure 3 & its function?

Facial artery, branch of ECA, & supplies the face

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90
<p>What is the structure 4 &amp; its function?</p>

What is the structure 4 & its function?

Lingual artery, branch of ECA, & supplies the tongue

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91
<p>What is the structure 5 &amp; its function?</p>

What is the structure 5 & its function?

Superior thyroid artery, branch of ECA, & supplies the larynx & thyroid gland

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92
<p>What is the structure 6 &amp; its function?</p>

What is the structure 6 & its function?

External carotid artery

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93
<p>What is the structure 7 &amp; 10 its function?</p>

What is the structure 7 & 10 its function?

Maxillary artery, terminating branch of ECA, & supplies deep structures of the face like the infratemporal fossa

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94
<p>What is the structure 8 &amp; its function?</p>

What is the structure 8 & its function?

Occipital artery, branch of ECA, & supplies occipital region of the scalp

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95
<p>What is the structure 9 &amp; its function?</p>

What is the structure 9 & its function?

Ascending pharyngeal artery, branch of ECA, & supplies pharynx & palatine tonsils

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96
<p>What is the function of the Posterior auricular artery?</p>

What is the function of the Posterior auricular artery?

Supplies scalp posterior to the ear

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97

What are the branches of the 1st (mandibular) part of Maxillary artery

  • Deep auricular artery

  • Anterior tympanic artery

  • Middle meningeal artery

  • Accessory meningeal artery

  • Inferior alveolar artery

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98

What are the branches of the 2nd (pterygoid) part of Maxillary artery?

  • Masseteric artery

  • Pterygoid artery

  • Deep temporal artery

  • Buccal artery

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99

What are the branches of the 3rd (pterygopalatine) part of Maxillary artery?

  • Descending palatine

  • Posterior superior alveolar

  • Infraorbital artery

  • Pharyngeal artery of Pterygoid canal

  • Sphenopalatine artery

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100

What provides most of the blood supply to the head & neck?

Subclavian & common carotid arteries

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