bio lab exam 2

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cranial superior

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1

cranial superior

towards head

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2

caudal/inferior

towards feet

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3

ventral

towards belly/front

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4

dorsal

towards back

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5

medial

towards midline of body

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6

lateral

towards side of body

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7

proximal

closer to a specific point

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8

distal

further away from a specific point

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9

thoracic

chest region

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10

abdominal

abdomen region

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11

pelvic region

area where urinary and reproductive structures end

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12

what is the anatomical term for "towards the belly or abdomen?

humans: anterior/ventral animals:ventral

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13

the lung has multiple lobes (sections). which lung below is closer to the head?

cranial lobe

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14

T or F: using the glomerulus as a point of reference, the proximal tubule is further away from the glomerulus compared to other components of the kidney nephron

false

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15

nares

location: nostrils function: sense chemicals in the air

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16

vibrissae

location: whiskers function: (tactile sensation) sense movement in air and physical contact

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17

ear

function: hearing

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18

forelimb

location: front legs closer to head function: locomotion

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19

hindlimb

location: back legs closer to rail function: locomotion

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20

anus

location: hole at the beginning of the tail function: indigestible material is eliminated from the body

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21

urethral orifice

location: in males, at penis in females, top hole in pelvic area function: where urine exits, in males semen exits from this too

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22

tail

function: temperature regulation (area where heat can be lost), balance

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23

penis

location: mostly hidden beneath skin and fur but see urethral orifice function: opening of urethra from which excretory products (urine and semen) exit body

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24

scrotal sac

location: bulbous sac below penis function: house testes

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25

mammary papillae

location: nipples along abdomen of females, cranial set closer to head and caudal set closer to tail function: external openings of mammary glands where milk exits

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26

vaginal orifice

location: second hole in between urethral orifice and anus function: depression right below urethral orifice, entrance to vagina

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27

what is the function of nares?

sense chemicals in air

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28

what are two differences between the urethral orifice and the vaginal orifice?

-urethral orifice is where urine comes out of (sperm as well in males) whereas the vaginal orifice is the opening into the vagina in females -urethral orifice is found in both males and females whereas the vaginal orifice is only found in females

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29

which is more cranial, the forelimbs or hindlimbs?

forelimbs

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30

masseter muscle

location: cheeks function: large cheek muscles on either side of face; main muscle for chewing

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31

tongue

function: muscle suitable for properly chewing and swallowing food, tasting; also important for speech

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32

palate

location: top of mouth extending from the front to the back of the oral cavity function: seperate oral cavity from nasal cavity

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33

esophagus

location: long tube along trachea in between oral cavity and stomach function: transports fluid and foods into stomach

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34

stomach

location: muscular j-shaped structure function: stores food and begins protein digestion

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35

small intestines (duodenum, jejunum and ileum)

location: starting from stomach, long narrow tube in the abdomen; found usually towards the left part of the abdomen function: of duodenum- complete digestion of food into monomers of jejunum and ileum- absorb monomers and water

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36

liver

location: large brown/red structure at the top of the abdomen function: produce bile salts and determines distribution of nutrients

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37

gall bladder

location: underneath liver; attached to liver sometimes function: stores bile salts

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38

pancreas

location: feather-like structure underneath the stomach function: produces bicarbonate to reduce acidity of acid chyme and produces enzymes (lipases, nucleases, proteases) to digest nutrients

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39

mesentary

location: clear tissue connecting intestines when spread out function: a fold of the peritoneum which attaches the stomach, small intestine, pancreas, spleen and other organs to the posterior wall of the abdomen

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40

what are the three tissue layers that make up the duodenum and how each layer functions to enable the duodenum to perform its overall functions?

epithelium-secretion of enzymes smooth muscle-peristalsis connective tissue-connects epithelium to muscle tissue

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41

why does it make sense that the stomach, gall bladder, and pancreas all empty into the duodenum

duodenum is where all nutrients are broken down to their monomer form. stomach, gall bladder, and pancreas produce products to aid in this. stomach produces acid chyme that begins the breakdown of proteins so it can be further broken down in the duodenum. the gall bladder provides bile salts that are involved in breaking down fats. pancreas produces enzymes used in the duodenum to breakdown nutrients into monomers. it also produces bicarbonate to reduce the acidity of the acid chyme coming in from the stomach.

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42

what are the two main functions of the stomach?

store food and begin chemical digestion of proteins

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43

trachea

location: long clear tube with ridges function: part of conduction system; connects pharynx to bronchi

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44

bronchi

location: 2 branches off of trachea into left and right lungs function: part of conduction system connecting trachea to bronchioles

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45

lungs -left lung -right cranial lobe -right medial lobe -right caudal lobe -right accessory lobe

location: behind and around heart, right cranial is close to head, right medial is in the middle, right caudal is on the bottom and the right accessory lobe is below the heart function: contains bronchioles (conduction system) and alveoli (gas exchange-O2 into blood and CO2 from blood)

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46

diaphragm

location: thin muscle strip between chest cavity and liver; likely cut when opening up chest cavity function: allows for inhalation and exhalation, contraction is inhalation and relaxation is exhalation

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47

T or F when the diaphragm contracts you exhale

false

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48

right/left atria

location: right- small right upper chamber left- small left upper chamber function: receive blood, right-from body and left- from lungs

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49

right/left ventricles

location: lower large chamber; part of it is right ventricle and part is left (hard to distinguish) function: expels blood from heart, right- to lungs and the left to the body

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50

arterial system vessels -aortic arch -descending aorta -brachiocephalic artery -carotid arteries

location: red vessels -curved part of aorta -vertical section of aorta -1st branch (right) off of aortic arch -goes up along trachea on left and right sides function: carries blood away from -aortic arch carries all blood away from heart to rest of the body -brachiocephalic artery supplies blood to head and neck and right side -carotid arteries supplies blood to brain, neck and face

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51

venous system vessels -cranial vena cava -inferior vena cava

location: blue vessels -coming in from the top of the heart -coming in from bottom of heart function: returns blood to heart from -head and neck -lower part of the body

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52

atria/auricles (left and right) -right: small right upper chamber -left: small left upper chamber

location: -right: small right upper chamber -left: small left upper chamber function: recieve blood -right from body -left to body

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53

ventricles (left and right)

location: lower large chambers; separated by inter ventricular septum and groove/sulcus left side has thicker cardiac muscle than right side function: expels blood from heart -right: to lungs -left: to body

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54

aorta

location: large vessel, lower vessel on top of the heart (opens to the side or top depending on how it was cut out) function: carries all blood from heart (left ventricle) to the rest of the body

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55

pulmonary trunk/artery

location: smaller vessel above the aorta function: carries blood from heart (right ventricle) to lungs

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56

interventricular sulcus/groove (outside)

location: diagonal line found on ventral surface of heart function: separates left and right ventricles

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57

interventricular septum (inside)

location: thick cardiac muscle tissue in between left and right side of heart function: separates left and right ventricles

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58

atrioventricular valves -tricuspid valve (right AV valve) -bicuspid (mitral/left AV valve)

location: in between atrium and ventricle on left and right sides of heart -3 leaflet valve -2 leaflet valve function: prevents backflow of blood from ventricle back into atrium

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59

semilunar valve

location: can find through the aorta and through pulmonary trunk function: prevents backflow of blood into ventricle once it is pumped out

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60

papillary muscles

location: muscle attached to the lower part of the ventricles and attached to chordae tendinae function: prevents the leaflets of the atrioventricular valve from protruding into the atrium as it contracts and pulls on the chordinae tendinae attached to the leaflets

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61

chordae tendineae

location: thin strings attached to AV valves function: prevents the leaflets of the atrioventricular valve from protruding into the atrium

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62

the ___ is the major vessel that carries blood bck to the heart from the lower part of the body

inferior vena cava

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63

number the following structures in the order that a red blood cell will travel through when it leaves the left ventricle carries oxygen to the brain, and to the right atria of the heart

descending aorta-N/A carotid artery-2 cranial vena cava-3 inferior vena cava-N/A aorta-1

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64

when the papillary muscle contracts

the chordae tendinae shorten and the leaflets of the atrioventricular valve do not protrude into the atrium

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65

penis

location: pronounced structure near bottom of pelvic cavity; can see on outside of the body function: connected to urinary bladder by urethra; where urine and sperm exit body

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66

testis

location: round structure within scrotum function: produces sperm and testosterone (male sex hormone)

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67

scrotum (external)

location: outer sac in male's pelvis function: the scrotum (or scrotal sac) is a part of the external male genitalia located behind and underneath the penis. it is the small, muscular sac that contains and protects the testicles, blood vessels, and part of the spermatic cord.

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68

vas deferens

location: thin tube that wraps around bladder and connects testes to urethra; there is 1 on the left and right side of the body. function: tube that leads sperm from testes to urethra

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69

seminal vesicle

location: 2 large folded/wrinkled structures on either side of the bladder; attached to vans deferens near the base of the bladder function: an accessory gland that produces a sugar-rich fluid (fructose, other carbohydrates) to provide source of nutrients/energy to sperm; part of semen

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70

vaginal opening/vaginal orifice (external)

location: middle hole function: opening of vagina where penis is inserted

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71

vagina

function: receives penis and serves as birth canal

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72

uterine horn

location: either side of descending colon function: site of implantation in mice

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73

ovary

location: by kidneys--looks like two small dots function: produces eggs and female sex hormone estrogen

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74

place the following structures in the correct order through which a sperm travels out of the body

testes-1 urethra-3 urethral orifice-4 vas deferens-2

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75

kidney -medulla -cortex -renal pelvis

location: kidney bean shaped structure in the back of the abdomen and on either side of the descending colon -inner part of kidney (darker in color) -outer part of kidney (lighter in color) -yellow/beige funnel-shaped structure near where the kidney kinks or bends function: filters blood to produce a filtrate that will undergo reabsorption and secretion to become urine -medulla is the inner part of the kidney where nephrons are located -cortex is outer part of kidney where nephrons are located -renal pelvis is a funnel-shaped structure that takes urine to the ureter

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76

urinary bladder

location: follow the descending colon to a small muscular structure, can also find it by following the ureters from the kidney (side) to the center (bladder) function: where urine is stored

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77

ureter

location: thin long tubes leading from the kidney to the bladder function: where urine travels through from the kidney to the bladder

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78

urinary opening

location: external- superior most hole in males and females internally- below the bladder and were the opening is located externally function: where urine exits out of the body

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79

regarding a juxtamedullary nephron... a) where is it located within the kidney and b) what is its function?

a) it extends into the medulla of the kidney b) it produces urine

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80

if there was damage to the ureters, what would be the consequence?

there would be less urine being stored in the bladder

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81

after urine is produced in the kidney, where does it go to next?

renal pelvis

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82

spleen

location: dark brown/red, oval shaped structure right below the stomach function: filters blood and removed old, malformed, or damaged red blood cells. produces immune cells and filters out foreign intruders; acts as a reservoir for red blood cells and immune cells in case of emergency

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83

what role does the spleen play in the immune system?

filters blood and removes old, malformed or damaged red blood cells. produces immune cells and filters out pathogens; acts as a reservoir for blood cells and immune cells if needed

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84

brain: cerebrum (external) -cortex -hemispheres: left and right -lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital

location: large, convoluted part of brain, large surface area that can still fit in the skull -outer part -left and right sides on either side of longitudinal fissure -frontal: front part, parietal: top and towards the back, temporal: side, occipital: bottom back function: voluntary movement and cognitive functions -frontal: decision making, planning, speech, control skeletal muscles -parietal: integration of sensory information, sense of touch -occipital: combining images, object recognition, processing visual stimuli and pattern recognition -temporal: hearing and understanding language

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85

brain: cerebellum (external)

location: back part of brain on top of spinal cord and brainstem function: coordinates movements and balance -hand eye coordination -learning and remembering motor skills

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86

brain: brainstem (external) -medulla oblongata -pons

location: right above spinal cord -right above spinal cord and below cerebellum -above medulla oblongata function: homeostasis (breathing, heart rate, digestion and swallowing) -coordination of large-scale -control arousal and sleep -reticular formation -blocks familiar and unimportant information (sensory filter) -transmits important

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87

brain: optic chiasm (external)

location: underneath brain towards the front of the brain (often looks like a thick solid "x") -where optic nerves partially cross function: optic nerves--caries visual information from retina to the brain. crossing allows brain to receive visual signal from the visual fields of both eyes

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88

brain: spinal cord (external)

location: long thin extension from brain function: carry afferent and efferent signals between body and brain

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89

brain: cerebral fissure (external)

location: indentation at the top of the brain dividing left and right cerebral hemispheres function: separates the 2 hemispheres longitudinal

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90

internal cerebrum -corpus callosum

location: same as external -solid, diagonal band in between cerebrum and thalamus; bundle of nerve fibers function: see above -connects left and right hemispheres so they can communicate with each other

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91

internal cerebellum

location: behind cerebrum and sitting above brainstem

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92

internal optic chiasm

location: small circle at the bottom of brain and right behind frontal lobe

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93

internal diencephalon

location: larger circle right below corpus callosum function: input center for sensory input going to the cerebrum

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94

thalamus

function: receives input from cerebrum that regulates emotions

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95

internal brainstem

location: medulla oblongata- right above spinal cord and underneath cerebellum -to the left/right of the medulla oblongata

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96

internal ventricles

location: spaces in the brain function: spaces filled with cerebrospinal fluid that carries nutrients to and wastes from CNS cells; carries O2, hormones, etc.

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97

internal matter -gray matter -white matter

location: -outer, darker-colored edge -lighter colored center function: -contains cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons-- integration -contains myelinated axons-- transmit information

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98

dendrites

function: receive information from other neurons

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99

cell body

function: where most of neuron's organelles are located

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100

axon hillock

function: where signals that travel down the axon are generated

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