Exam 5

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Psychopathology

1 / 104

Tags and Description

Psychology

105 Terms

1

Psychopathology

the study of psychological disorders, including their symptoms, etiology (causes), and treatment.

New cards
2

Psychological disorder

a condition characterized by abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

Behaviors, thoughts, and inner experiences that are atypical, dysfunctional, or dangerous are signs of psychological disorders.

New cards
3

Wakefield (1992):

Proposed a more influential concept in which he defines psychological disorders as a harmful dysfunction.

New cards
4

Dysfunction

occurs when an internal mechanism (e.g., cognition, perception, learning) breaks down and cannot perform its normal function.

New cards
5

For a dysfunction to be be classed as a disorder, it must also be harmful

leads to negative consequences for the individual or for others, as judged by the standards of the individual’s culture.

New cards
6

Diagnosis

appropriately identifying and labeling a set of defined symptoms

New cards
7

DSM-5 is the classification system used

by most mental health professionals.

New cards
8

Diagnostic features

overview of the disorder.

New cards
9

Diagnostic criteria

specific symptoms required for diagnosis.

New cards
10

Prevalence

percent of population thought to be afflicted.

New cards
11

comorbidity

the co-occurrence of two disorders

New cards
12

Supernatural perspective

psychological disorders attributed to a force beyond scientific understanding.

New cards
13

Psychosocial Perspective

Emphasizes the importance of learning, stress, faulty and self-defeating thinking patters, and environmental factors. Views the cause of psychological disorders as a combination of biological and psychosocial factors.

New cards
14

Diathesis-Stress Model:

Integrates biological and psychosocial factors to predict the likelihood of a disorder.

Diathesis + Stress → Development of a disorder

New cards
15

Fear

an instantaneous reaction to an imminent threat.

New cards
16

Anxiety

apprehension, avoidance, and cautiousness regarding a potential threat, danger, or other negative content.

New cards
17

phobias

Involves excessive, distressing, and persistent fear or anxiety about a specific object or situation.

New cards
18

Acrophobia

heights

New cards
19

Aerophobia

flying

New cards
20

Arachnophobia

spiders

New cards
21

Claustrophobia

enclosed spaces.

New cards
22

Agoraphobia

Characterized by intense fear, anxiety, and avoidance of situations in which it might be difficult to escape or receive help if one experiences a panic attack.

New cards
23

Classical Conditioning.

Child is bitten by dog (US) → dogs become associated with biting (CS) → child experiences fear around dogs (CR).

New cards
24

Vicarious Learning.

Child observes cousin react with fear around spiders → child later expresses the same fears even though spiders have never presented any danger to him.

New cards
25

Verbal transmission of information.

A child is continuously told that snakes are dangerous → child starts to fear snakes.

New cards
26

social anxiety disorder

Characterized by extreme and persistent fear or anxiety and avoidance of social situations in which the person could potentially be evaluated negatively by others, leading to serious impairments in life.

Associated with lower educational attainment, lower earning, poor work performance, unemployment.

New cards
27

Safety behaviors

mental or behavioral acts that reduce anxiety in social situations by reducing the chance of negative social outcomes.

comorbidity w alcohol use disorder

New cards
28

Behavioral inhibition

a consistent tendency to show fear and restraint when presented with unfamiliar people or situations.

New cards
29

Panic disorder

recurrent and unexpected panic attacks, along with at least one month of persistent concern about additional panic attacks, worry over the consequences of the attacks, or self-defeating changes in behavior related to the attacks.

Comorbidity - anxiety disorders or major depressive disorder.

New cards
30

Panic attack

a period of extreme fear or discomfort that develops abruptly and reaches a peak within 10 minutes.

New cards
31

Locus coeruleus

in the brainstem is possibly involved

Major source of norepinephrine (neurotransmitter that triggers flight-or-flight response).

New cards
32

Conditioning Theories

Panic attacks are classical conditioning responses to subtle bodily sensations resembling those normally occurring when one is anxious or frightened.

New cards
33

Cognitive Theories

Individuals with panic disorder are prone to interpret ordinary bodily sensations catastrophically, setting the state for panic attacks.

In some patients, reducing catastrophic cognitions about sensations has proven to be as effective as medication in reducing panic attacks.

New cards
34

generalized anxiety disorder

A relatively continuous state of excessive, uncontrollable, and pointless worry and apprehension.

Restlessness, difficulty concentrating, being easily fatigued, muscle tension, irritability, and sleep difficulties.

New cards
35

cognitive theories (anxiety disorder)

Worry represents a mental strategy to avoid more powerful negative emotions perhaps stemming from earlier unpleasant or traumatic experiences.

Worrying acts a distraction from remembering painful childhood experiences.

New cards
36

obsessive compulsive disorder

Involves thoughts and urges that are intrusive and unwanted (obsessions) and/or the need to engage in repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions).

New cards
37

Obsessions

persistent, unintentional, and unwanted thoughts and urges that are highly intrusive, unpleasant, and distressing

New cards
38

common obsessions in OCD

Concerns about germs and contamination Doubts Order and symmetry Aggressive or lustful urges

New cards
39

Compulsions

repetitive and ritualistic acts, typically carried out primarily as a means to minimize the distress that obsessions trigger or to reduce the likelihood of a feared event.

Not performed out of pleasure. The person usually knows these obsessions and compulsions are irrational but suppressing them is extremely difficult.

New cards
40

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Involves a preoccupation with a perceived flaw in the individuals physical appearance that is either nonexistent or barely noticeable to other people.

New cards
41

Hoarding Disorder (OCD)

Involves great difficulty in discarding possessions, regardless of how valueless/useless they are, usually resulting in an accumulation

New cards
42

Why are hoarders unable to let go of items?

They think items might be useful at a later time.

Sentimental attachment to items.

New cards
43

conditioning theories (OCD)

Symptoms of OCD are learned responses resulting from both classical and operant conditioning.

Neutral stimulus + unconditioned stimulus → anxiety or distress.

Once association has been acquired, encounters with the NS trigger anxiety and obsessive thoughts.

Anxiety and obsessive thoughts continue until a strategy is identified to relieve it.

Relief may be ritualistic behavior or mental activity that reduces anxiety.

Compulsive acts become negatively reinforcing.

New cards
44

OCD Circuit

Several interconnected regions that influence perceived emotional value of stimuli and selection of behavioral and cognitive responses.

Abnormalities in these areas may produce symptoms of OCD.

New cards
45

Orbitofrontal cortex

involved in learning and decision making.

provoked w negative stimuli

New cards
46
term image

OCD in the brain

New cards
47

Anterior cingulate cortex

hoarding disorder

New cards
48

prefrontal cortex

body dysmorphic disorder

New cards
49

obitofrontal cortex

obsessive compulsive disorder

New cards
50

PTSD

Individual was exposed to, witnessed, or experienced the details of a traumatic experience (“actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence”)

New cards
51

symtoms of PTSD

Intrusive and distressing memories of the event.

Flashbacks – states during which individual relives the event and behaves as if it were occurring at that moment.

Avoidance of stimuli connected to the event.

Persistently negative emotional states.

Feelings of detachment from others.

Irritability.

Proneness toward outbursts.

Exaggerated startle response.

New cards
52

risk factors of PTSD

Trauma experience. Those involving harm by others carry greater risk than those that do not.

Lack of immediate social support. Social Support (comfort, advice, and assistance from relatives, friends, and neighbors) can reduce the risk of developing PTSD.

Subsequent life stress. Female gender.

Low socioeconomic status. Low intelligence.

Personal history of mental disorders. History of childhood adversity.

Family history of mental disorders. Personality characteristics – neuroticism and somatization (tendency to experience physical symptoms when one encounters stress).

Possession of one or two short versions of a gene that regulates serotonin.

New cards
53

conditioning theories of PTSD

Traumatic event (UCS) → Extreme fear and anxiety (UCR).

Cognitive, emotional, physiological, and environmental cues associated with the traumatic event become conditioned stimuli.

Traumatic reminders (CS) → Extreme fear and anxiety (CR).

New cards
54

Cognitive Theories of PTSD

1.Disturbances in memory for the event. Poorly encoded memories of trauma can become fragmented, disorganized, and lacking in detail.

Individuals cannot remember event in a way that gives meaning and context.

May become haunted by these fragments involuntarily triggered by stimuli associated with the event.

  1. Negative appraisals of the trauma and its aftermath (e.g., ”I deserve to be raped because I am stupid”).

May lead to dysfunctional behavioral patterns that maintain symptoms and prevent changes in the problematic appraisals.

New cards
55

Mania

(extreme elation and agitation) is the main feature.

New cards
56

Seasonal pattern

applies to situations in which a person experiences the symptoms of major depressive disorder only during a particular time of year.

New cards
57

Peripartum onset (postpartum depression

major depression during pregnancy or in the four weeks following the birth.

New cards
58

Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)

– depressed moods most of the day nearly every day for at least two years, as well as at least two of the other symptoms of major depression.

New cards
59

bipolar disorder

Involves mood states that fluctuate between depression and mania.

New cards
60

Symptoms of Mania

Excessively talkative. Excessively irritable.

Exhibit flight of ideas – talk loudly and rapidly, abruptly switching from one topic to another. Easily distracted.

Exhibit grandiosity – inflated but unjustified self-esteem and self-confidence. Show little need for sleep.

Take on several tasks at once. Engage in reckless behaviors.

New cards
61

Elevated levels of cortisol

are found in depression.

New cards
62

Cortisol activates the amygdala and

deactivates the prefrontal cortex (disturbances connected to depression).

New cards
63

Mood disorders often

involve imbalances in neurotransmitters. (serotonin and norepinephrine.)

New cards
64

Medications for depression

usually increase serotonin and norepinephrine

New cards
65

Medication for bipolar

Lithium, which blocks norepinephrine activity at the synapse.

New cards
66

Amygdala (mood disorders)

important in assessing the emotional significance of stimuli and experiencing emotions.

New cards
67

Prefrontal cortex

important in regulating and controlling emotions.

New cards
68

Cognitive theories suggest that depression

is triggered by negative thoughts, interpretations, self-evaluations, and expectations.

New cards
69

Aaron Beck (1960s)

Theorized that depression-prone people possess mental predispositions to think about most things in a negative way (depressive schemas).

New cards
70

Depressive schemas

contain themes of loss, failure, rejection, worthlessness, and inadequacy.

New cards
71

Hopelessness Theory

Specific negative thinking style → sense of hopelessness → depression.

New cards
72

Negative thinking

refers to a tendency to perceive negative life events as having stable (”It’s never going to change”) and global (“It’s going to affect my whole life”) causes.

New cards
73

Hopelessness

expectation that unpleasant outcomes will occur or desired outcomes will not occur, and there is nothing one can do to prevent such outcomes (seen as the primary cause of depression).

New cards
74

Rumination

repetitive and passive focus on the fact that one is depressed and dwelling on depressed symptoms, rather than distracting one’s self from the symptoms or attempting to address them in an active, problem-solving manner.

New cards
75

Hallucinations

perceptual experience that occurs in the absence of external stimulation. (Auditory hallucinations are most common).

New cards
76

Delusions

beliefs that are contrary to reality.

New cards
77

Paranoid delusions

belief that other people or agencies are plotting to harm them.

New cards
78

Grandiose delusions

belief that one holds special power, unique knowledge, or is extremely important.

New cards
79

Somatic delusions

belief that something highly abnormal is happening to one’s body.

New cards
80

Disorganized thinking

disjointed and incoherent thought processes.

New cards
81

Catatonic behaviors

decreased reactivity to the environment

New cards
82

Negative Symptoms

decreases and absences in certain behaviors, emotions, drives.

New cards
83

Avolition

lack of motivation to engage in self-initiated and meaningful activity.

New cards
84

Alogia

reduced speech output.

New cards
85

Asociality

social withdrawal.

New cards
86

Anhedonia

inability to experience pleasure.

New cards
87

Dopamine hypothesis

an overabundance of dopamine or too many dopamine receptors are responsible for the onset and maintenance of schizophrenia.

Drugs that increase dopamine levels can produce schizophrenia-like symptoms.

Medications that block dopamine activity reduce the symptoms.

New cards
88

High levels of dopamine in the limbic system

hallucinations and delusions

New cards
89

Low levels of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex

negative symptoms

New cards
90

Brain Anatomy

Enlarged ventricles.

Reduced gray matter in the frontal lobes.

Many show less frontal lobe activity when performing cognitive tasks.

New cards
91

Dissociative Disorders

Characterized by an individual becoming, split off, or dissociated, from their core sense of self - Memory and identity become disturbed.

New cards
92

Dissociative Amnesia

Inability to recall important personal information.

Usually follows a stressful or traumatic experience.

New cards
93

Dissociative fugue

individual suddenly wanders away from home, experiences confusion about their identity, and in some cases may adopt a new identity.

New cards
94

Depersonalization/Derealization Disorder

Characterized by recurring episodes of depersonalization, derealization, or both.

New cards
95

Depersonalization

feelings of “unreality or detachment from, or unfamiliarity with, one’s whole self or from aspects of the self”

New cards
96

Derealization

a sense of ”unreality or detachment from, or unfamiliarity with, the world, be it individuals, inanimate objects, or all surroundings”

New cards
97

Dissociative Identity Disorder

Individual exhibits two or more separate personalities or identities.

New cards
98

personality disorder

Characterized by a pervasive and inflexible personality style that differs markedly from the expectations of the individuals culture and causes distress or impairment.

New cards
99

Cluster A

Paranoid personality disorder Schizoid personality disorder Schizotypal personality disorder

New cards
100

Cluster B

Antisocial personality disorder Histrionic personality disorder Narcissistic personality disorder Borderline personality disorder

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 30 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 22 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 20369 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(232)
note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 31832 people
Updated ... ago
4.6 Stars(63)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard58 terms
studied byStudied by 9 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard54 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard52 terms
studied byStudied by 63 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard101 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard114 terms
studied byStudied by 23 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard29 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard84 terms
studied byStudied by 32 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard111 terms
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)