Biology Unit 2

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photosynthesis

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Biology

12th

129 Terms

1

photosynthesis

Energy in plants that is stored in sugars like glucose came from?

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2

to extract energy

Purpose of cellular respiration

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3

oxygen

aerobic cellular respiration can only take place in the presence of?

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4

True

Bond forming requires an input of energy. True or False?

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5

aerobic cellular respiration

a process that uses oxygen to harvest energy from organic compounds

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6

obligate anaerobes

an organism that can not live without oxygen

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7

False

Glucose is broken down all at once in cellular respiration. True or False?

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8

substrate level phosphorylation

ATP is formed directly by transfer of phosphate by enzyme

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9

oxidative phosphorylation

ATP is formed indirectly through a redox reaction

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10

cytosol

where does glycolysis take place?

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11

across the mitochondrial membranes

where does pyruvate oxidation take place?

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12

mitochondrial matrix

where does the krebs cycle take place?

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13

inner mitochondrial membrane

where does ETC take place?

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14

2 ATP, 2 NADH, Pyruvate

outputs of glycolysis

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15

2 NADH, Acetly-CoA, CO2

outputs of pyruvate oxidation

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16

2 ATP, 2 FADH, 6 NADH, CO2

outputs of the krebs cycle

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17

38 ATP

outputs of ETC (net)

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18

facultative aerobes

Escherichia coli, organisms that can extract energy with out without oxygen present

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19

obligate anaeerobes

Clostridium botulinum, organisms that exact energy without oxygen present

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20

prokaryotes

have no mitochondrion so CR is difficult and inefficient, etc still occurs and holds full complement of reactions in the cytosol

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21

anaerobic respiration

final electron acceptor is not oxygen but other inorganic molecule

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22

fermentation

no electron transport chain, uses organic molecule as oxidizing agent

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23

glycolysis

Oldest reaction

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24

endergonic

energy investement phase

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25

exergonic

energy payoff phase

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26

2.2%

effeciency of glycolysis?

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27

pyruvate, thermal, NADH

where is the other 97.8% of energy from glycolysis?

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28

reduction

gaining of electrons (NAD + to NADH)

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29

decarboxylation

removal of carboxyl group (COO-)

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30

dehydrogenation

Transfers 2e and 1p o NAD+ → NADH

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31

acetylCoA, oxaloacetate, H2O

the krebs cycle begins with?

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32

reduction

gaining electrons (2 part reaction)

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33

oxidation

losing electrons (2 part reaction)

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34

high electronegativity

O2 is a good electron acceptor due to?

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35

enzyme

the energy for SLP comes from?

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36

electron transfer

the energy for OP comes from?

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37

citrate

a 2 carbon acetyl group carried by CoA is transfered to oxaloacetate forming?

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38

succinate dehydrogenase

the only peripheral membrane protein in the etc, 2nd complex

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39

NADH dehydrogenase

1st complex in ETC

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40

cytochrome complex

3rd complex in ETC

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41

cytochrome oxidase

4th complex in ETC

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42

ubiquinone

first shuttle in ETC, shuttles from 1 & 2 to 3, hydroPHOBIC

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43

cyt c

second shuttle in ETC, shuttles from 3 to 4, hydroPHILLIC

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44

true

it is not the proteins but rather non protein groups that transfer electrons to build a gradient, true or false?

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45

electrochemical gradient of protons

gradient name across membranes

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46

proton-motive force

force that moves protons across electrochemical gradient

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47

chemiosmosis

ATP is synthesized using energy of gradient and ATP synthase

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48

ATP synthase

molecular motor

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49

malate-aspartate

more efficient shuttle

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50

glycerol-phosphate

less efficient shuttle

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51

41%

theoretical maximum of energy from glucose

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52

creatine

what ATP binds to when there is too much of it in the muscle or brain cells

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53

metabolic rate

energy exerted per unit in time

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54

basal metabolic rate

energy exerted when resting

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55

less

more fat = more or less BMR?

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56

phosphofructokinase

feedback inhibitor in glycolysis

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57

heavier

carbohydrates are lighter or heavier than lipids to carry?

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58

plasma membrane

where are the ETC components found in Prokaryotes

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59

alcohol fermentation

pyruvate is decarboxylated into acetaldehye, which oxdizes NADH and turns into ethanol

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60

lactate fermentation

pyruvate oxidizes NADH and turns into lactate

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61

activates

AMP does ? to glycolysis

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62

inhibit

ATP & citrate ? to glycolysis

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63

decarboxylation

losing a C atom

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64

photoautotroph

an organism that makes its own food using energy from the Sun

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65

light dependent reactions

the first stage of reactions in photosynthesis

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66

calvin cycle

the second stage of the photosynthesis process that uses ATP and NADPH to convert CO2 to sugars

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67

primary electron acceptor

a molecule capable of accepting electrons and becoming reduced during photosynthesis

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68

antenna complex

chlorophyll b and carotenoids make up the?

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69

reaction center

chlorophyll a and primary electron acceptor

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70

absorption spectrum

a plot of the amount of light energy of various wavelengths that a substance absorbs

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71

action spectrum

a plot of the effectiveness of light energy of different wavelengths in driving a chemical process

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72

photosystem 1

a collection of pigment proteins that includes chlorophyll a and absorbs light at the 700 nm wavelength

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73

photosystem 2

a collection of pigment proteins that includes chlorophyll a and absorbs light at the 680 nm wavelength

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74

rubisco

ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase; a critical enzyme that acts as a catalyst for the reduction

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75

photolysis

how is oxygen generated during photosynthesis?

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76

CO2 fixation

NADPH and ATP being used to turn CO2 into high-energy molecules

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77

false

Photosynthesis is the reverse of cell respiration. True or False?

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78

Three

how many membranes does a chloroplast have?

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79

outer membrane

first chloroplast membrane

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80

inner membrane

second chloroplast membrane

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81

thylakoid membrane

third chloroplast membrane

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82

stroma

aqueous environment inside the chloroplast, enzymes that catalyze the reactions of the Calvin cycle are found here

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83

grana

interconnected stacks of flattened discs

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84

granum

flattened disc

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85

thylakoid lumen

space inside the thylakoids

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86

along the thylakoid membrane

where do the light dependent reactions occur?

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87

thylakoid membrane

what gives plants their green color?

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88

stromata

are minute openings through which O2 and CO2 are exchanged with the surrounding atmosphere.

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89

stromal lamellae

connects the granum

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90

excites

what does the absorption of a photon do to an electron?

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91

returns to ground state

first outcome for excited electron, energy is released as thermal

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92

passes energy to another electron

second outcome for excited electron

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93

is passed to an electron acceptor

third outcome for excited electron

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94

accessory pigments

carotenoids and chlorophyll b are what kind of pigments?

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95

reflected

what kind of light gives a pigment its color

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96

spectrophotometer

instrument which analyzes a sample of the pigment

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97

light-harvesting complex

another name for a large antenna complex

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98

NADPH and ATP

Energy captured during the light-dependent reactions is used to synthesize ?

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99

cytosol and folds in membrane

where does photosynthesis occur in cells without chloroplsats?

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100

water

source of hydrogen atoms and electrons in photosynthesis

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