NURS101-01 Midterm (copy)

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Concepts

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110 Terms

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Concepts

A term or label that describes a phenomenon. The phenomenon described may be either empirical or abstract

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conceptual models

A set of concepts and statements that integrates the concepts into a meaningful configuration

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Assumptions

Describe concepts or connect two concepts and represents values, beliefs, or goals. When challenged, they become propositions

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Theory

group of concepts that describe a pattern of reality

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Metaparadigm

The most global perspective of a discipline; acts as an encapsulating unit, or framework, within which the more restricted structures develop

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Nursing metaparadigm

a set of concepts and propositions that sets forth the phenomena with which a discipline is concerned

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General Adaptation Syndrome

based on physiologic and psychobiologic responses to stress

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General Systems Theory

a science investigating general laws for arbitrarily complex arrangements—"systems"—which constitute functional integrities.

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Social Cognitive Theory

explains human behaviors in terms of dynamic reciprocal interactions among cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences

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Stress and Coping Process Theory

stress as resulting from an imbalance between perceived external or internal demands and the perceived personal and social resources to deal with them.

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Paradigm

The lens through which you see the world. They are also philosophical foundations that support our approaches to research

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12

Values

Refer to a group's or individual's evaluative judgments about what is good or what makes something desirable. These judgments refer to what the normative standard should be, not necessarily to how things actually are. They are the principle and ideals that give meaning and direction to our social, personal, and professional life. They are integral to moral reasoning. In nursing, they encompass appreciating what is important for both the profession and the nurses personally as well as what is important for patients.

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values clarification

A process that can occur in a group or individually and helps us understand who we are and what is most important to us. The outcome is positive because the outcome is growth

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purpose of a personal philosophy of nursing

captures your intrinsic beliefs and goals within the nursing profession. Defining your philosophy provides you with a deeper connection to those beliefs. It can help shape you as a nurse and provide direction for which skills and specialties you want to focus on strengthening

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15

Competence

The ability to demonstrate an integration of knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary to function in a specific role and work setting

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clinical judgment

An interpretation or conclusion about a patient's needs, concerns, or health problems, and/or the decision to take action (or not), use or modify standard approaches, or improvise new ones as deemed appropriate by the patient's response or the use of the clinician's experience and knowledge in assessment, diagnosis, planning, intervention, and evaluation

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clinical reasoning

The processes by which nurses and other clinicians make their judgments include the deliberative process of generating alternatives, weighing them against the evidence, and choosing the most appropriate, and those patterns that might be characterized as engaged, practical reasoning.

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Mindfulness

Keeping attention focused in the present, resulting in the ability to see salient aspects of the clinical situation and to take decisive action to prevent harm.

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critical thinking

The ability to think in a systematic and logical manner, solve problems, make decisions, and establish priorities in the clinical setting. It is the competent use of thinking skills and abilities to make sound clinical judgments and safe decisions.

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reflective thinking

The process of analyzing, making judgments, and drawing conclusions to create an understanding through one's experiences and knowledge and exploring potential alternatives.

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nursing process

The tool by which all nurses can become equally proficient at critical thinking. The nursing process contains the following criteria: (1) assessment, (2) diagnosis, (3) planning, (4) implementation, and (5) evaluation.

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concept mapping

The method used to organize and link information about a patient's health problems so that the nurse can see relationships among a patient's problems and plan interventions that can address more than one problem

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Journaling

The process by which one sits down quietly on a daily or regular basis to think and record one's thoughts and ideas in writing. Recording clinical experiences that were meaningful or troubling to you is a recommended way to help enhance and develop reasoning skills.

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Socialization

A process by which a person acquires the knowledge, skills, and sense of identity that are characteristic of a profession.

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Formation

A process that occurs over time that denotes the development of perceptual abilities, the ability to draw on knowledge and skilled know-how, and a way of being and acting in practice and in the world.

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professional values

Beliefs or ideals that guide interactions with patients, colleagues, other professionals, and the public.

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Novice

The first stage of Benner's model, characterized by a lack of knowledge and experience. In this stage, the facts, rules, and guidelines for practice are the focus. Rules for practice are context-free, and the student's task is to acquire the knowledge and skills.

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advanced beginner

Stage 2 of Benner's model, in which the student is able to formulate principles that dictate action. For example, the student would grasp the rationale behind why different medications require different injection techniques.

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Competent

Stage three of Benner's model, is characterized by the ability to analyze problems and prioritize. The nurse has a solid grasp of the rules and principles. The nurse at this stage has had experience in a variety of clinical situations and is able to draw on prior knowledge and experience.

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Proficient

Stage 4 of Benner's model. Refers to the professional who is able to grasp the situation contextually and as a whole. Such nurses have a solid grasp of the norms as well as solid experiences that shed light on the variations from the norm. Incorporated into practice is the ability to test knowledge against situations that might not fit and to solve problems with alternative approaches.

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Expert

The final stage in Benner's model. The nurse has moved beyond a fixed set of rules. There is an internalized understanding grounded in a wealth of experience as well as the depth of knowledge. The expert is always learning and always questioning using subjective and objective knowledge.

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Salience

A perceptual stance or embodied knowledge whereby aspects of a situation stand out as more or less important.

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Role transition

The transition from nursing student to registered nurse is sometimes described in terms of reality shock.

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Mentoring

A relationship between two nurses in which the more experienced nurse provides leadership and guidance to the nurse with less experience, often referred to as the mentee.

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Burnout

Progressive, involves disengagement and withdrawal and is characterized by physical, emotional, or mental exhaustion

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compassion fatigue

Acute condition resulting from stress that may present itself over involvement in patient care

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Stereotypes

A standardized mental picture that is held in common by members of a group and that represents an oversimplified opinion, prejudiced attitude, or uncritical judgment. For example, Nightingale defined nursing as "female work." Nurses need to face the generalizations present in our society and erase the lines that define us.

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cultural competence

The ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures. It comprises awareness of one's own worldviews, attitude toward cultural differences, knowledge of different cultural practices, and cross-cultural skills.

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nursing shortage

Because of the growing complexity of health care, limited educational opportunities for students, the aging of the population, and the overall growth of the population, a shortfall in the number of registered nurses has occurred that will continue to worsen.

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faculty shortage

This shortage is limiting student capacity in nursing programs across the nation.

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image of nursing in the media

news reports and television shows have traditionally portrayed nurses as trustworthy and caring, they also have tended to paint the profession as one that lacks autonomy and authority

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global aging

In the post-World War II era, fertility rates have increased as death rates decreased in both developed and developing countries, leading to the aging of the world's population at an unprecedented rate.

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complementary and alternative medicines

An approach that combines conventional medicine with less conventional options; an approach used instead of conventional medicine.

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CNL (clinical nurse leader)

An advanced generalist role prepared at the master's level of education.

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DNP (doctor of nursing practice)

This practice degree encompasses any form of nursing intervention that influences healthcare outcomes for individual patients, management of care for individuals and populations, administration of nursing and health organizations, and the development and implementation of health policy. This practice degree is not the same as the research doctoral degree, and graduates are prepared to blend clinical, economic, organizational, and leadership skills and to use science in improving the direct care of patients, care of patient populations, and practice that supports patient care.

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access to healthcare

Living in rural areas presents unique concerns related to gaining entry into the healthcare system. As finances influence the closing of many rural hospitals, more communities struggle to find primary care providers who will work in those areas

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Incivility

Bullying that can include such behaviors as criticism, humiliation in front of others, undervalued efforts, and teasing.

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Violence

The exertion of physical force so as to injure or abuse. Objectives toward the prevention of this are included in Healthy People 2020.

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Consumerism

The concept of consumers having more control of their healthcare experiences.

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disaster preparedness

Plans designating response during an emergency and often coordinated by local, state, and federal groups. Firefighters, police officers, and healthcare professionals are part of response teams

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Ethics

The study of ideal human behavior and ideal ways of being. The approaches to this and the meanings of related concepts have varied over time among philosophers and ethicists. As a philosophical discipline of study, it is a systematic approach to understanding, analyzing, and distinguishing matters of right and wrong, good and bad, and admirable and deplorable as they exist along a continuum and as they relate to the well-being of and the relationships among sentient beings

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Morals

Specific beliefs, behaviors, and ways of being based on personal judgments derived from one's ethics. They are judged to be good or bad through systematic ethical analysis

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Bioethics

A specific domain of ethics that is focused on moral issues in the field of health care.

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nursing ethics

Sometimes viewed as a subcategory of the broader domain of bioethics, just as medical ethics is a subcategory of bioethics. However, controversy continues about whether nursing has unique moral problems in professional practice.

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moral reasoning

Pertains to making decisions about how humans ought to be and act.

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values in nursing

altruism, autonomy, human dignity, integrity, honesty and social justice

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code of ethics

sets forth values, ethical principles, and ethical standards to which professionals aspire and by which their actions can be judged. Social workers' ethical behavior should result from their personal commitment to engage in ethical practice

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patient advocacy

The nurse speaks for the patient or maintains the patient's rights in the face of the healthcare system. An advocate is a person who pleads the cause for patients' rights.

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personal dignity

Often mistakenly equated with autonomy; judging others and describing behaviors as dignified or undignified are of an evaluative nature.

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moral suffering

Can be experienced when nurses attempt to sort out their emotions when they find themselves in situations that are morally unsatisfactory or when forces beyond their control prevent them from influencing or changing these perceived unsatisfactory moral situations. It can occur because nurses believe that situations must be changed to bring well-being to themselves and others or to alleviate the suffering of themselves and others.

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61

PSDA (Patient Self-Determination Act)

Legislation is designed to facilitate the knowledge and use of advance directives.

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living will

A formal legal document that provides written directions concerning medical care that is to be provided in specific circumstances.

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power of attorney

A written directive provides a designated person with the legal authority to make either general or healthcare decisions for another person.

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advance directive

A written expression of a person's wishes about medical care, especially care during a terminal or critical illness.

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do not resuscitate

A type of advance directive in which a person states that healthcare providers should not perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (restarting the heart) if his or her heart or breathing stops

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Euthanasia

the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma. The practice is illegal in most countries

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palliative care

Providing comfort rather than curative measures for terminally ill patients.

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persistent vegetative state

A clinical condition of complete unawareness of the self and the environment, accompanied by sleep-wake cycles with either complete or partial preservation of hypothalamic and brain stem autonomic functions.

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TS (Terminal sedation)

When a suffering patient is sedated to unconsciousness, usually through the ongoing administration of barbiturates or benzodiazepines. The patient then dies of dehydration, starvation, or some other intervening complication, as all other life-sustaining interventions are withheld.

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PAS (Physician-assisted suicide)

According to Oregon's Death with Dignity Act, "lethal medications, expressly prescribed by a physician for that purpose."

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medical futility

When a treatment has no physiologic benefit for a terminally ill person

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rule of double effect

Usually defined narrowly in health care as the use of high doses of pain medication to lessen the chronic and intractable pain of terminally ill patients, even if doing so hastens death.

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ANA Code of Ethics

The 7 ethical principles the Nursing Code of Ethics is based upon include beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, accountability, autonomy, fidelity, and veracity

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ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses

a statement of the ethical values, responsibilities and professional standards of nurses. It guides everyday ethical nursing practice and can serve as a regulatory tool to guide and define ethical nursing practice

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unavoidable trust

Zaner's contention that patients, in most cases, have no option but to trust nurses and other healthcare professionals when the patient is at the point of needing care.

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social justice

A virtue that guides us in creating those organized human interactions we call institutions. In turn, social institutions, when justly organized, provide us with access to what is good for the person, both individually and in our associations with others. Social justice also imposes on each of us a personal responsibility to work with others to design and continually perfect our institutions as tools for personal and social development.

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rationing healthcare

denying patients the potentially beneficial health care services

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organ transplantation

a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ

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Death

cessation of heart-lung function, or of whole brain function, or of higher brain function

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rational suicide

Self-slaying that is categorized as voluntary active euthanasia.

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end of life decisions and moral conflict

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Beneficence

The actions taken by nurses to benefit patients and facilitate their well-being

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Non-maleficence

Refraining from action that might harm others. The injunction to "do no harm" is often paired with beneficence, but a difference exists between the two principles. Beneficence requires taking action to benefit others.

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Justice

The fair distribution of benefits and burdens. In regard to principlism, it most often refers to the distribution of scarce healthcare resources.

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Autonomy

One's ability to self-rule and to generate personal decisions independently.

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Confidentiality

The obligation of the nurse, along with other caregivers, is to keep healthcare information private. To fulfill their social contract to provide nursing care, nurses must often gather sensitive patient information. Privacy is the right of the patient

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What is an ethical dilemma?

A situation in which an individual is compelled to make a choice between two actions that will affect the well-being of a sentient being and both actions can be reasonably justified as being good, neither action is readily justifiable as good, or the goodness of the actions is uncertain. One action must be chosen, thereby generating a quandary for the person or group who must make the choice

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88

statutory law

Consists of ever-changing rules and regulations created by the U.S. Congress, state legislators, local governments, and constitutional law. The statutes are the rights, privileges, or immunities secured and protected for each citizen by the U.S. Constitution.

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administrative law

Governed by statutory law called administrative procedure acts at both federal and state levels, this law provides that before regulations can be adopted, a published notice of the proposed rules and where they are available must occur. The published notice and availability of the proposed rules provide concerned persons with the opportunity to comment on and suggest changes to the rules before final adoption. Thus, the process has three steps: (1) proposal of regulations, (2) consideration of proposed regulations, and (3) adoption of regulations with or without changes.

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case law

Established from court decisions, which might explain or interpret the other sources of law

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civil law

The law of civil or private rights, as opposed to criminal law

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reasonable standard of care

Refers to the nurse implementing the type of care that a reasonably prudent nurse would use in a similar circumstance.

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nursing scope of practice

describes the services that a qualified health professional is deemed competent to perform, and permitted to undertake - in keeping with the terms of their professional license

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Malpractice

The failure of a professional to use such care as a reasonably prudent member of the profession would use under similar circumstances, which leads to harm.

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Negligence

The failure to act as a reasonably prudent person would have acted in a specific situation.

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respondeat superior

The doctrine that indicates the employer may also be responsible if the nurse was functioning in the employee role at the time of an incident.

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informed consent

Mandates to the physician or independent healthcare practitioner the separate legal duty to disclose needed material facts in terms that patients can reasonably understand so that they can make an informed choice. Meaningful information must be disclosed even if the clinician does not believe that the information will be beneficial.

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Assault

Any act or threat of physical violence, harassment, intimidation or other threatening, disruptive behavior from patients, patient's family members, external individuals, and hospital personnel. It includes physical, sexual, and psychological assaults.

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Battery

the intentional act of causing physical harm to someone. Unlike assault, you don't have to warn the victim or make him fearful before you hurt them for it to count as battery. If a nursing home attendant surprises the patient and pushes the patient from behind, that would qualify as battery

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false imprisonment

An intentional act to restrict a patient's movement unlawfully

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